Today in History: May 5

Every
Year
May 5 is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 240 days remaining until the end of the year.
1920 “As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”
— Albert Einstein (1879–1955), “Äther und Relativitätstheorie” (“Aether and Relativity Theory”), a talk given on May 5, 1920 at the University of Leiden.

Original German: “Insofern sich die Sätze der Mathematik auf die Wirklichkeit beziehen, sind sie nicht sicher, und insofern sie sicher sind, beziehen sie sich nicht auf die Wirklichkeit.”

Today in History: April 26

Every
Year
April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 249 days remaining until the end of the year.
Every
Year
Confederate Memorial Day (Florida and Georgia)
Every
Year
Day of Remembrance of the Chernobyl Tragedy (Belarus)
Every
Year
World Intellectual Property Day (International)
570 Born today: Muhammad (April 26, 570–June 8, 632, age 62)

Mohammed receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. Miniature illustration on vellum from the book Jami’ al-Tawarikh (literally “Compendium of Chronicles”), by Rashid al-Din, published in Tabriz, Persia, 1307 CE.

Mohammed receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. Miniature illustration on vellum from the book Jami’ al-Tawarikh (literally “Compendium of Chronicles”), by Rashid al-Din, published in Tabriz, Persia, 1307 CE.

Muhammad, full name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ’Abd Allāh ibn ’Abd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (literally “Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim”), is the central figure of Islam and widely regarded as its founder. He is known to Muslims as the “Holy Prophet”, considered by most to be the last prophet sent by God to mankind to restore Islam, which they believe to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. (Ahmadiyya Muslims consider Muhammad to be the “Seal of the Prophets” (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing prophet, but not the last prophet; the Nation of Islam considers Elijah Muhammad to be a prophet; and United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet.) He united Arabia into a single Muslim state and ensured that his teachings, practices, and the Qur’an—which Muslims believe was revealed to him by God—formed the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Muhammad the Prophet

Muhammad the Prophet

Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570. His father died before he was born and his mother died when he was 6. He was raised by his paternal uncle Abu Talib. Before the age of 40, he worked as a merchant. At times he would retreat to a cave in the mountains named Hira for several nights of seclusion and prayer. At age 40, he received a visit from the archangel Gabriel and received his first revelation from God. At the age of 43 he started preaching the revelations in public, proclaiming that “God (Allah, literally Al-Ilāh ‘the God’) is One (Al-Aḥad)”, that complete “surrender” (literally islām) to him is the only acceptable way (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God. (“Islam” is always referred to in the Qur’an as a dīn, a word that means “way” or “path” in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as “religion” for the sake of convenience.)

Muhammad the Prophet

Muhammad the Prophet

Muhammad was met with hostility by some Meccan tribes. To escape persecution, he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (/ˈjaθrib/), which he later renamed al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah (“the radiant city”, modern-day Medina) in the year 622. The migration, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. Day one in the Islamic calendar corresponds to July 16, 622 CE in the Julian calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah (“Charter of Medina”), the first constitution of democracy in the history of constitutional rule. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent conflict with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and attacked the city of Mecca. The attack was largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. He destroyed 360 pagan idols at al-Ka’bah (/alˈkaʕba/, “The Cube”). Today, the Kaaba is a building at the center of Islam’s most sacred mosque, Al-Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, al-Hejaz, Saudi Arabia; wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba when performing salat (prayer).In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. The Farewell Pilgrimage is the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad participated in—every move, every act, and every gesture of Muhammad on this occasion, and everything that he did, became a precedent for all time, to be followed by all Muslims.

The revelations (each known as Ayah, literally “Sign [of God]”) Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Qur’an, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur’an, Muhammad’s teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira literature, are also upheld by Muslims and used as sources of Islamic law.

A frieze on the north wall of the U.S. Supreme Court depicts great lawgivers of the Middle Ages. Muhammad is standing second from the right between Justinian and Charlemagne, holding the Qur’an and a sword.

A frieze on the north wall of the U.S. Supreme Court depicts great lawgivers of the Middle Ages. Muhammad is standing second from the right between Justinian and Charlemagne, holding the Qur’an and a sword.

1721 The first smallpox vaccination was administered.
1900 Born today: Charles Francis Richter (April 26, 1900–September 30, 1985, age 85)

Charles Francis Richter (c. 1970)

Charles Francis Richter (c. 1970)

Richter was an American seismologist and physicist, most famous as the creator of the Richter magnitude scale (denoted as ML for local magnitude), which, until the development of the moment magnitude scale (denoted as MW) in 1979, quantified the size of earthquakes. Inspired by Kiyoo Wadati’s 1928 paper on shallow and deep earthquakes, Richter first used the scale in 1935 after developing it in collaboration with Beno Gutenberg; both worked at the California Institute of Technology.

In an interview in the Earthquake Information Bulletin (Vol. 12, No. 1, January–February, 1980), talking about the origins of the Richter magnitude scale, Richter said:

I found a [1928] paper by Professor K. Wadati of Japan in which he compared large earthquakes by plotting the maximum ground motion against [the] distance to the epicenter. I tried a similar procedure for our stations, but the range between the largest and smallest magnitudes seemed unmanageably large. Dr. Beno Gutenberg then made the natural suggestion to plot the amplitudes logarithmically. I was lucky, because logarithmic plots are a device of the devil.

1941 Born today: Claudine Auger (April 26, 1941– )

Claudine Auger 1958 Miss France Monde

Claudine Auger
1958 Miss France Monde

Claudine Auger, born Claudine Oger, was a French actress with 80 credits to her name in the years 1958–1997, She was also the 1958 Miss France Monde and the first runner-up in the 1958 Miss World contest.

She is best known for her role as Bond girl Dominique “Domino” Derval in the James Bond film Thunderball (1965). Although she took lessons to perfect her English, her voice was eventually dubbed by Nikki van der Zyl. Her role as a Bond girl led to a semi-nude Playboy spread in November 1965.

She is also known for her roles as Isabelle de Saint-Mars in Le Masque de Fer (The Iron Mask) (1962), as Amrita in Kali Yug, la Dea Della Vendetta (Kali Yug: Goddess of Vengeance) (1963), as Isolina in Yoyo (1965), as Paulette in Triple Cross (1966), as Jacqueline Meyrand in Jeu de Massacre (The Killing Game) (1967), as Esmerelda in Le Dolci Signore (Anyone Can Play) (1968) co-starring with Bond girl Ursula Andress, as Laura in La Tarantola dal Ventre Nero (Black Belly of the Tarantula) (1971) co-starring with Bond girls Barbara Bach and Barbara Bouchet, as Renata in Reazione a Catena (A Bay of Blood) (1971), as Sybil in The Bermuda Triangle (1978), as Mme. Lenski in Credo (1983), and as Countess Veronica Rospigliosi in La Bocca (1990).

Claudine Auger

Claudine Auger

Claudine Auger

Claudine Auger

Claudine Auger

Claudine Auger

Claudine Auger in Thunderball (1965)

Claudine Auger
Thunderball (1965)

Claudine Auger in Thunderball (1965)

Claudine Auger
Thunderball (1965)

1949 Born today: John Leonard Orr (April 26, 1949– )

John Orr is a former fire captain and arson investigator for the Glendale, California Fire Department who was indicted and later convicted as a serial arsonist. He was one of the worst American serial arsonists of the twentieth century, setting almost 2,000 fires between 1984 and 1991.

During the 1980s and 1990s a series of fires broke out in the Los Angeles area that killed four people and did millions of dollars in damages. During their search for the arsonist, arson investigators gave him the nickname The Pillow Pyro. Orr set the fires by using a time-delayed device made of a lit cigarette and three matches wrapped in yellow writing paper and held together by a rubber band. He left the devices in stores while they were open and filled with customers, often in highly-flammable polyurethane pillows. To distract firefighters from the real crime scene, he set small fires in the dry grass in the surrounding hills before lighting the big fires. After Orr was arrested, the number of brush fires in the nearby foothill areas decreased by more than ninety percent.

Orr was a budding novelist, writing a manuscript titled Point of Origin about a serial arsonist who was also a fireman. Due to the similarities with fires that Orr actually set, arson investigators believe that Orr’s novel chronicles real acts of arson. Orr claims that his novel is a work of fiction and has no relation to any actual events. While defending his manuscript in an interview, Orr said, “The character of Aaron Stiles was a composite of arsonists I arrested.” However, a retired Los Angeles arson investigator pointed out that Aaron Stiles is an anagram for “I set LA arson”.

Orr is currently serving a life sentence in California State Prison, Centinela.

1956 The SS Ideal X, the world’s first commercially successful container ship, left Port Newark, New Jersey for Houston, Texas with 58 containers.

Container steamship Ideal X, built in 1944 as the tanker Potrero Hills.

Container steamship Ideal X, built in 1944 as the tanker Potrero Hills.

The Ideal X was a converted World War II T-2 oil tanker originally built as the Potrero Hills in January 1945 by the Marinship Corporation in Sausalito, California as yard number 158. It was later purchased by Malcom McLean’s Pan-Atlantic Steamship Company. In 1955, the ship was modified to carry shipping containers and rechristened Ideal X at Bethlehem Steel in Baltimore, Maryland.On April 26, 1956, during the first voyage in its new configuration, the Ideal X carried 58 containers from Port Newark, New Jersey to Port of Houston, Texas where 58 trucks waited to be loaded with the containers.

The SS Ideal X was the world’s first commercially successful container ship, but not the first container ship. The the White Pass and Yukon Route’s Clifford J. Rodgers made its first trip in 1955.

In 1959, the vessel was sold to Bulgarian owners, who rechristened it the Elemir. The Elemir suffered extensive damage during heavy weather on February 8, 1964, and was sold in turn to Japanese owners for scrap, being finally scrapped on October 20, 1964, in Hirao, Japan.

The SS Ideal X was 524 feet (160 m) long, 30 feet (9.1 m) wide in the beam, and 68 feet (21 m) high. Its gross register tonnage was 16,460 tons. It could carry 58 33-foot containers at 10,572 deadweight tonnage. It used an Elliot Company steam turbine and electric propulsion.

1970 Died today: Gypsy Rose Lee (January 8, 1911–April 26, 1970, age 59)
1973 Died today: Irene Ryan (October 17, 1902–April 26, 1973, age 70)
1980 Born today: Jordana Brewster (April 26, 1980– )
1989 Died today: Lucille Ball (August 6, 1911, 1911–April 26, 1989, age 77)

Today in History: April 25

Every
Year
April 25 is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 250 days remaining until the end of the year.
1961 Mercury-Atlas 3 (MA-3) launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida carrying a robotic “mechanical astronaut”.

Project Mercury Logo

Project Mercury Logo

Mercury-Atlas 3 (MA-3) was an unmanned test flight of the Mercury program. The Mercury program’s goal was to put a man into Earth orbit and return him safely, ideally before the Soviet Union. On April 25, 1961 at 16:15 UTC, MA-3 launched from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida carrying a robotic “mechanical astronaut”. The MA-3 was made up of Mercury spacecraft No. 8 and Atlas No. 8 LV-3B 100-D rocket. The rocket used had a number of upgrades, including a thicker skin to support the Mercury spacecraft’s extra weight and a new transistorized telemetry unit which replaced the previous vacuum tube units that were bulky, had high power consumption, and whose signal strength tended to degrade during launch.

Mercury-Atlas 3 Launch

Mercury-Atlas 3 Launch

However, even with these improvements, the rocket was still not reliable enough to carry a human to space. At 20 seconds into the flight, the pitch and roll sequence failed to initiate and the vehicle just continued flying straight upward. At 43 seconds into the flight, the flight the Range Safety Officer pushed the self-destruct button and the flight was terminated. MA-3 ended in a rain of fiery debris falling back to Earth. At the moment the self-destruct command was sent, the Mercury capsule was detached from the rocket and continued on downrange 1.1 miles (1.8 kilometers), reaching an apogee of 4.5 miles (7.2 kilometers). The flight of the Mercury capsule lasted 7 minutes and 19 seconds, most of that time descending on its parachute. The capsule was recovered about 20 minutes after launch in the Atlantic Ocean and reused on the next flight (MA-4) as spacecraft No. 8A. The flight wasn’t a complete failure though, it proved that the launch escape system worked. This was the first Mercury-Atlas launch with a live escape tower.

Investigation of the telemetry data quickly narrowed the cause of the failure to a fault somewhere in the guidance system, but the exact nature of it could not be determined. It appeared that the guidance system programmer either shut off completely shortly after liftoff or suffered a power outage, restarted, and then failed to execute the pitch and roll sequence. Two months after the MA-3 flight, the Atlas’s programmer was discovered buried in mud on a beach not far from the launch pad and analyzed. Engineers concluded that the failure was most likely due to contaminated pins in the programmer causing an open circuit. In addition, the Atlas’s guidance system as a whole was found to have a number of serious design deficiencies that needed to be corrected.

1964 Born today: Hank Azaria (April 25, 1964– )

Today in History: April 23

Every
Year
April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 252 days remaining until the end of the year.
Every
Year
International Pixel-Stained Technopeasant Day

International Pixel-Stained Technopeasant Day is a commemoration declared by author Jo Walton, held on April 23 and first celebrated in 2007, in response to remarks made by Howard V. Hendrix stating that he was opposed “to the increasing presence in our organization the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America of webscabs, who post their creations on the net for free.” The purpose of the day, according to Walton was to encourage writers to post “professional quality” works for free on the internet.

The name of the day originates from the assertion by Hendrix that the “webscabs” are “converting the noble calling of Writer into the life of Pixel-stained Technopeasant Wretch.” The word “webscabs” is derived from “scabs”, a derogatory term for strikebreakers.

Every
Year
Saint George’s Day
Every
Year
UN English Language Day (United Nations)

UN English Language Day is observed annually on April 23. The event was established by the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) in 2010 to seeking “to celebrate multilingualism and cultural diversity as well as to promote equal use of all six of its official working languages throughout the organization.” April 23 was chosen as the date for the English language because it is the anniversary of William Shakespeare’s birth.

Every
Year
Canada Book Day (Canada)

Canada Book Day is a yearly event celebrated in Canada on April 23 to promote reading and books during Canada Book Week. Canada Book Day is celebrated on the same day as World Book and Copyright Day, a yearly event organized by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing and the protection of intellectual property through copyright. Canada Book Day was organized by the Writers’ Trust of Canada, a national organization whose mandate is to represent writers and support Canadian English-language literature. The Trust no longer organizes this event.

Every
Year
World Book Day (UNESCO)

World Book Day or World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Days) is a yearly event on April 23, organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to promote reading, publishing and copyright. In the United Kingdom, the day is recognized on the first Thursday in March. World Book Day was celebrated for the first time on April 23, 1995.

The connection between April 23 and books was first made in 1923 by booksellers in Catalonia, Spain. The original idea was of the Valencian writer Vicente Clavel Andrés as a way to honor the author Miguel de Cervantes who died on this date in 1616. In 1995 UNESCO decided that the World Book and Copyright Day would be celebrated on April 23, as the date is also the anniversary of the death of William Shakespeare and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega—both also died in 1616—as well as that of the birth or death of several other prominent authors.

In Spain, to celebrate this day, Cervantes’s Don Quixote is read during a two-day “readathon” and the Miguel de Cervantes Prize is presented by the Spanish king in Alcalá de Henares.

In Catalonia, Spain, St. George’s Day has been “The Day of the Rose” since 1436, and involves the exchange of gifts between loved ones and respected people—it is analogous to Valentine’s Day. Although World Book and Copyright Day has been celebrated since 1995 internationally, books were exchanged on “The Day of the Rose” in Catalonia since 1929, in memory of Cervantes.

In Sweden, the day is known as Världsbokdagen (“World Book Day”) and the copyright aspect is seldom mentioned. Normally celebrated on April 12, it was moved to April 13 in the year 2000 and 2011 to avoid a clash with Easter.

In the United Kingdom, World Book Day is held annually on the first Thursday in March, as April 23 clashes with Easter school holidays; April 23 is also the National Saint’s Day of England, St. George’s Day. Conversely, a separate event World Book Night organized by independent charity The Reading Agency is held on April 23.

In Kensington, Maryland, United States the International Day of the Book is celebrated with a street festival on the Sunday closest to April 26.

1016 Edmund Ironside succeeded his father Æthelred the Unready as king of England.
1516 The Bayerische Reinheitsgebot was signed in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany.

The Reinheitsgebot (German pronunciation: /ˈʁaɪnhaɪtsɡəboːt/), sometimes called the “German Beer Purity Law” in English, is the collective name for a series of regulations limiting the ingredients in beer in Germany and its predecessor states. The most well-known version of the law was adopted in Bavaria in 1516, but similar regulations predate the Bavarian order, and modern regulations also significantly differ from the 1516 Bavarian version.

The most influential predecessor of the modern Reinheitsgebot was a law first adopted in the duchy of Munich in 1487. After Bavaria was reunited, the Munich law was adopted across the entirety of Bavaria on April 23, 1516. As Germany unified, Bavaria pushed for adoption of this law on a national basis. According to the 1516 Bavarian law, the only ingredients that could be used in the production of beer were water, barley and hops. The 1516 Bavarian law set the price of beer (depending on the time of year and type of beer), limited the profits made by innkeepers, and made confiscation the penalty for making impure beer.

An English translation of the text of the 1516 Bavarian law is as follows:

We hereby proclaim and decree, by Authority of our Province, that henceforth in the Duchy of Bavaria, in the country as well as in the cities and marketplaces, the following rules apply to the sale of beer:

From Michaelmas to Georgi, the price for one Mass [Bavarian Liter 1,069] or one Kopf [bowl-shaped container for fluids, not quite one Mass], is not to exceed one Pfennig Munich value, and

From Georgi to Michaelmas, the Mass shall not be sold for more than two Pfennig of the same value, the Kopf not more than three Heller [Heller usually one-half Pfennig].

If this not be adhered to, the punishment stated below shall be administered.

Should any person brew, or otherwise have, other beer than March beer, it is not to be sold any higher than one Pfennig per Mass.

Furthermore, we wish to emphasize that in future in all cities, markets and in the country, the only ingredients used for the brewing of beer must be Barley, Hops and Water. Whosoever knowingly disregards or transgresses upon this ordinance, shall be punished by the Court authorities’ confiscating such barrels of beer, without fail.
Should, however, an innkeeper in the country, city or markets buy two or three pails of beer (containing 60 Mass) and sell it again to the common peasantry, he alone shall be permitted to charge one Heller more for the Mass of the Kopf, than mentioned above. Furthermore, should there arise a scarcity and subsequent price increase of the barley (also considering that the times of harvest differ, due to location), WE, the Bavarian Duchy, shall have the right to order curtailments for the good of all concerned.

1605 Died today: Boris Godunov (c. 1551–April 23, 1605, age 54)

Boris Godunov

Boris Godunov

Boris Fyodorovich Godunov /bɐˈrʲis ɡədʊˈnof/ (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в in Russian) ruled the de facto regent of the Tsardom of Russia from about 1585 to 1598 and then as Tsar of All Russia from February 21, 1598 to 1605.

Boris was born around 1551 to Feodor Ivanovich Godunov “Krivoy“ (“the one-eyed”) and his wife Stepanida Ivanovna. The Godunovs were members of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, descended from the Tatar Prince Chet, which came from the Golden Horde to Kostroma in the 1300s.

Godunov’s career began at the court of Ivan IV, also known as “Ivan the Terrible”. In 1571 he became an oprichnik, a member of Ivan’s personal guard and secret police. To strengthen his position at the court, he married Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya, the daughter of oprichniks’ head. In 1580, the Tsar chose Irina Godunova, Godunov’s sister, to be the wife of his second son and eventual heir, the fourteen-year-old Feodor Ivanovich. On this occasion, Godunov was promoted to the rank of Boyar, the highest rank, second only to the tsar. On his deathbed in 1484, Ivan IV appointed a council consisting of Godunov and others to guide his feeble-minded son and successor, Feodor Ivanovich. At Feodor’s coronation as Tsar Feodor I on May 31, 1584, Boris became a member of the regency council, second in command behind Feodor’s uncle Nikita Romanovich. When Nikita died in 1586, Boris had no serious rivals to become regent, the de facto ruler of Russia.

Godunov’s policies were generally peaceful and always prudent. In 1595, he recovered some towns lost to Sweden under Ivan’s reign.  He supported an anti-Turkish faction in the Crimea and subsidized the emperor in his war against the sultan. Godunov encouraged English merchants to trade with Russia by exempting them from duties. He built towns and fortresses along the north-eastern and south-eastern borders of Russia to keep the Tatar and Finnic tribes in order. He colonized Siberia with scores of new settlements. In 1597, Godunov’s most important domestic reform forbade peasants from transferring from one landowner to another, which they were free to do around Yuri’s Day (the Russian name for either of the two feasts of Saint George celebrated by the Russian Orthodox Church), thus binding them to the land. This ordinance aimed to secure revenue, but it led to the institution of serfdom in its most oppressive form.

When Feodor died childless on January 7, 1598, Boris seized the throne. Patriarch Job of Moscow proposed his election, believing Boris to be the only man capable of coping with the difficulties of the time. Boris insisted that he would only accept the throne only from the Zemsky Sobor (national assembly) which met on February 17 and unanimously elected him on February 21. On September 1, he was coronated tsar.

During the first years of his reign, he was both popular and prosperous, and ruled well. He recognized the need for Russia to catch up with the West intellectually and brought about educational and social reforms. He was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a large scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, and the first to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia. After the Russo–Swedish War (1590–1595), he felt access to the Baltic Sea was necessary and attempted to obtain Livonia (modern-day Estonia) through diplomatic means. He cultivated friendly relations with the Scandinavians and hoped to take a bride from a foreign royal house, thereby increasing the dignity of his own dynasty. However he declined Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth’s proposed personal union (combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct) with him in 1600.

Boris Badenov from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show

Boris Badenov from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show

Boris died after a lengthy illness and a stroke on April 23, 1605. He left one son, Feodor II, who succeeded him and ruled for only a few months, until he and Boris’ widow were murdered by the enemies of the Godunovs in Moscow on June 20, 1605.

The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show’s Boris Badenov’s name is a play on Godunov’s name—“bad enough” instead of “good enough”.

1616 Died today: Miguel de Cervantes (September 29, 1547–April 23, 1616, age 68)
1616 Died today: William Shakespeare (baptized April 26, 1564–April 23, 1616, age 52)
1616 Died today: El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (April 12, 1539–April 23, 1616, age 77)

Today in History: April 20

Every
Year
April 20 is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 255 days remaining until the end of the year.
1517 Died today: Bogdan III the One-Eyed (1470 or 1471–April 20, 1517, age 46 or 47)

Bogdan III the One-Eyed (Bogdan al III-lea cel Chior in Romanian) or Bogdan III the Blind (Bogdan al III-lea cel Orb in Romanian) was the Voivode of Moldavia from July 2, 1504 until his death in 1517. (Voivode /ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/ is literally “war-leader” or “war-lord” in Old Slavic.) Moldavia was the region between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river and is part of modern-day Romania, Ukraine, and the Republic of Moldova.

When Bogdan took the throne, he went to Polish King Alexander the Jagiellonian and asked to marry his sister, Elisabeth. After Alexander refused him twice, Bogdan invaded southern Poland in 1506 and was conceded his demands. When Sigismund the Old came to power following Alexander’s death, the agreements were broken which provoked further battles. In October 1509, Bogdan was severely defeated on the Dniester river. A peace agreement was signed on January 17, 1510 and Bogdan finally renounced his claims.

Moldavia suffered two major Tatar invasions in 1510 and by the next year, the Tatars occupied most of the country. The events forced Poland, still recovering from the great Tatar invasion of 1506, to send troops, helping Bogdan regain his lands after a victory in May 1512. In 1514, in order to block the Tatar threat by enlisting the help of a powerful overlord, Bogdan sent chancellor Tăutu to negotiate the terms of Moldavia’s submission to the Ottoman Empire, although Moldavia still maintained a high level of autonomy.

After his death, he was succeeded by his son Ștefan IV the Younger on April 22, 1517. He was buried next to his father, Ştefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great), and other members of his family in Putna Monastery in Putna, Suceava County, Romania.

The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat

Text of Item
Library of Congress Data
References

I love old advertising. Sometimes I come across some that I have to share.

Eliphalet Whittlesey of Mullica, New Jersey invented a “Gardners’ Stool” that was assigned U.S. Patent 40,301 on October 13, 1863.

The Gardener's Patent Locomotive Seat
The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat

Text of Item

The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat.

Patented, October, 1863.

The invention represented above, is designed to relieve a want long and seriously felt by Gardeners, Florists, Strawberry-pickers, &c., by furnishing an ever-ready support in all cases where their hands need to be employed on or near the ground.

Its chief advantages are:

Simplicity. It consists only of a malleable iron foot-piece with an oblique standard and seat of wood, all (weighing about one pound), firmly and quickly attached to the foot by two straps.

Locomotion. It enables the wearer to walk about at pleasure (the stool constantly attending him), with both hands free for other purposes.

Adaptation. It can be used between the thickest rows, or wherever the wearer can set his foot.

This stool when sold, will be delivered to the Express at Hammonton, New Jersey, on receipt of the price, $1.00.

Orders solicited by

E. WHITTLESEY,
Patentee and Manufacturer, Hammonton, Atlantic Co., New Jersey.

Quinn, Pr. 3d & Market Phila.

PLEASE POST THIS UP CONSPICUOUSLY.


Library of Congress Data

Title
The gardener’s patent locomotive seat … E. Whittlesey. Patentee and manufacturer … Philadelphia Quinn, Pr. 3d & Market St. [1863?].

Contributor Names
Whittlesey, E.

Created / Published
Philadelphia, 1863.

Notes
Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 158, Folder 22.

Subjects
Advertisements–Pennsylvania–Philadelphia
United States–Pennsylvania–Philadelphia.

Medium
1 p.; 30 x 20 cm.

Call Number
Portfolio 158, Folder 22

Part of
Broadsides, leaflets, and pamphlets from America and Europe

Digital ID
rbpe 15802200 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rbpe.15802200


Part of…
American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera
Rare Book and Special Collections Division
American Memory

Format
Books

Contributors
Whittlesey, E.

Dates
1863

Location
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia
United States

Language
English

Subjects
Advertisements
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia
United States


References

Whittlesey, Eliphalet. “The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat. Philadelphia, 1863”. Image. United States Library of Congress. Accessed April 15, 2016.

Whittlesey, Eliphalet. “Gardeners’ Stool”. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Accessed April 15, 2016.

Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater is located at 37°10’36.5”N 116°02’47.0”W (37.176820, -116.046382) in Area 10 on the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site) near Mercury, Nye County, Nevada. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places (#94000183) on March 21, 1994.

Project Plowshare and the Sedan Experiment

The United States Atomic Energy Commission’s Project Plowshare was intended to develop techniques to use nuclear explosives for peaceful construction purposes. In the 1960s and 1970s, during the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union carried out a number of Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE).

The PNEs were nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development, the creation of canals, rock blasting, stimulation of tight gas, chemical element manufacture (test shot Anacostia resulted in Curium-250m being discovered), unlocking some of the mysteries of the so-called “r-Process” of stellar nucleosynthesis, probing the composition of the Earth’s deep crust, creating reflection seismology data, and mining company prospecting.

There was significant public opposition to Project Plowshare’s 27 nuclear projects, which eventually led to the program’s termination in 1977. Some of the consequences of the program included the deposition of fallout from radioactive material being injected into the atmosphere and tritiated water (T2O, a radioactive form of water where the usual hydrogen atoms are replaced with tritium) which was projected to increase to a level of 2% of the then-maximum level for drinking water.

The Sedan Experiment was a part of Project Plowshare to take place at the Nevada Test Site consisted of detonating a 100-kiloton thermonuclear device 635 feet underground. The device was relatively clean as far as thermonuclear devices go—fission contributed less than 30% of the total yield. The device was buried in a 36-inch diameter cased hole that was back-filled with sand.

Predictions

The predicted crater diameter was 1,200–1,400 feet (366–427 meters) and the depth from about 170–300 feet (52–91 meters). About 95 per cent of the radioactivity produced by the explosion would be trapped underground. The heavier fallout would be confined to within about two miles upwind and crosswind, and four miles downwind of ground zero.

Detonation

On July 6, 1962 at 10:00 PDT (17:00:00 UT) the device was detonated. The detonation created a crater 1,200 feet (366 meters) across and 320 feet (98 meters) deep. About 7.5 million cubic yards (5.7 million cubic meters)—12 million US tons (10.9 million metric tons)—of earth and rock were removed. A 12,000-foot (3658-meter) dust cloud formed of some of the smaller earth particles. The lip of the crater (Hal in the diagram below) varied in height from about 20 feet (6 meters) to 100 feet (30 meters).

Nuclear Explosion Crater Cross Section
Nuclear Explosion Crater Cross Section [Glasstone and Dolan, 1977]

 

SZ surface zero 37°10’36.5”N 116°02’47.0”W
(37.176820, -116.046382)
DOB depth of burst 635 feet (194 meters)
Da apparent depth 320 feet (98 meters)
Dal depth from the lip crest 340–420 feet (104–128 meters)
Hal height of the lip crest from the original ground surface 20–100 feet (6–30 meters)
Average 33 feet (__ meters)
Ra apparent radius 1,200 feet (366 meters)
Ral radius to crater lip crest
Re radius of ejecta

 
The exact percentage of escaping radioactivity could not be obtained from the available preliminary data, but there was no major deviation from the prediction. The dust cloud carried the small amount of radioactivity which was not trapped underground or deposited close to the crater north at a speed of about 12 miles per hour. The fallout was in line predictions.

Photographs

Crater from the 1962 “Sedan” nuclear test as part of Operation Plowshare. The 104 kiloton blast displaced 12 million US tons (10.9 million metric tons) of earth and created a crater 320 feet (98 meters) deep and 1,200 feet (366 meters) wide. (Look to the size of the roads in the bottom-right of the picture, and the observation deck at the lower-right edge of the crater, for a sense of scale.)

Sedan Crater
Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Field Office.

Sedan Crater at Nevada Test Site with the information sign about the project. The image was created from a dozen smaller images and stitched together using Hugin software.

Sedan Crater Panorama
Photo courtesy of Jarek Tuszynski / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

Sedan Crater aerial view.

Sedan Crater Aerial View
Original image source unknown.

Sedan Crater aerial view.

Sedan Crater Aerial View
Original image source unknown.

Statistics about Sedan Crater and other nearby craters are described in the image.

Sedan Crater and Nearby Craters Annotated
Original image source unknown.

Sedan Crater is marked on this satellite image. Many other craters are visible in the image.

Sedan Crater on Google Maps Satellite View
Based on image courtesy of Google Maps Satellite View.

Taking a Tour of the Sedan Crater

Yes! You can take a tour of the Sedan Crater and the rest of the Nevada National Security Site. The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Field Office provides free general interest tours of the Nevada National Security Site on a monthly basis.

Most tours depart from the National Atomic Testing Museum at 755 E. Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, Nevada. Tours depart at approximately 7:30 a.m. and return at 4:00 p.m. Provided transportation is usually a chartered bus equipped with a restroom.

The Nevada National Security Site is located 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Each tour usually covers about 250 miles. Tour participants should bring their own food and drinks, but no alcoholic beverages. There are no lunch stops. Casual clothing is recommended, and sturdy shoes are required for the rugged terrain. No shorts or sandals are permitted. Visitors to the Nevada National Security Site must be at least 14 years old. Pregnant women are discouraged from participating in Nevada National Security Site tours because of the long bus ride and uneven terrain.

Points of interest on the tour include:

  • Mercury, Nevada — Mercury is a closed city 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Las Vegas. It is situated within the Nevada Test Site and was constructed by the Atomic Energy Commission to house and service the staff of the test site.
  • Frenchman Flat — On January 27, 1951, the first atmospheric nuclear test, Able, took place on the Nevada National Security Site.
  • Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC) — The NPTEC is the world’s largest facility for open-air testing of hazardous materials and biological simulants.
  • Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Site — There is a low-level waste storage pit at the Nevada National Security Site.
  • Sedan Crater
  • T-1 Training Area — The soil emits low levels of radiation, simulating widespread radiological contamination from Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) or multiple Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs or “dirty bombs”), yet posing minimal risk to participants.
  • Apple II Houses — In an effort to determine the seismic effects of low yield atomic tests, three “typical American homes” were built down range from the May 5, 1955 Apple II test of 29 kilotons.

Contact the Department of Energy’s Office of Public Affairs to find out the date of the next tour. (All 2016 tours have been filled.) Reservations are required for all tours. Space is limited and seats fill quickly. Groups, civic or technical organizations, and private clubs may request specially-arranged tours (minimum of 25 people) by calling 702-295-0944.

References

Furlow, Robert C. “Sedan Crater” PDF. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. National Park Service. October 5, 1993. Retrieved 2009-05-25.

Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Thomas. 1977. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. USGPO.

Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. “Project Sedan On-Site Radiological Safety Report”. PDF. United States Atomic Energy Commission. April 29, 1963.

Sublette, Carey.“The Effects of Underground Explosions”. Nuclear Weapon Archive. March 30, 2001.

United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office. Image NF-12187.

United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office. “Public Tours of the Nevada National Security Site”. August 2013. Accessed April 14, 2016.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Environmental Monitoring Report For The Nevada Test Site And Other Test Areas Used For Underground Nuclear Detonations”. PDF. U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. May 1976.

Links

Today in History: April 11

Every
Year
April 11 is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 264 days remaining until the end of the year.
1241 Batu Khan defeated Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Mohi.

The Battle of Mohi (modern-day Muhi), also known as Battle of the Sajó River or Battle of the Tisza River, was the main battle between the Mongol Empire (Batu Khan) and the Kingdom of Hungary (King Béla IV and his allies, the Knights Templar and the Duchy of Austria) during the Mongol invasion of Europe. It took place at Mohi, southwest of the Sajó River. After the invasion, Hungary lay in ruins. Nearly half of the inhabited places had been destroyed by the invading armies. Around 15–25 percent of the population was killed, mostly in lowland areas, especially in the Great Hungarian Plain, the southern reaches of the Hungarian plain in the area now called the Banat, and in southern Transylvania.

The attackers — the Mongols, under Batu, Subutai, Shiban, Berke, and Boroldai — had approximately 70,000 soldiers. The defenders — the Kingdom of Hungary, under King Béla IV of Hungary, Coloman of Slavonia, and Archbishops Ugrin Csák and Matthias Rátót; the Knights Templar, under Rembald de Voczon; and the Duchy of Austria, under Frederick II of Austria and Palatine Denis Tomaj — had approximately 80,000 soldiers. Although the Mongols sustained heavy losses, they soundly defeated Hungary, which lost almost its entire army.

Batu Khan (/ˈbɑːtuː ˈkɑːn/; Бат хаан “Firm Khan” in Mongolian; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Сайн хаан “Good Khan” in Mongolian) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus’, Volga Bulgaria, Cumania, and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. Batu or bat literally means “firm” in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan’s sons, he became the most respected prince called agha (elder brother) in the Mongol Empire.

1876 The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks was organized.

Logo of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks

Logo of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks

The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (BPOE; also often known as the Elks Lodge or simply The Elks) is an American fraternal order founded by Joseph M. Norcross in 1868 originally as a social club in New York City, United states. Today headquartered at Elks National Veterans Memorial in Chicago, Illinois, it is one of the leading fraternal orders in the United States, claiming nearly one million members.

The Elks had modest beginnings in 1868 as a social club for minstrel show performers, called the “Jolly Corks”. It was established as a private club to elude New York City laws governing the opening hours of public taverns. After the death of a member left his wife and children without income, the club took up additional service roles, rituals and a new name. Desiring to adopt “a readily identifiable creature of stature, indigenous to America”, fifteen members voted 8–7 in favor of the elk above the buffalo. Early members were mostly from theatrical performing troupes in New York City. It has since evolved into a major American fraternal, charitable, and service order with more than a million members, both men and women, throughout the United States and the former territories of the Philippines and the Panama Canal.

Established in 1928, the Elks National Foundation is the charitable arm of the BPOE. The foundation, with an endowment valued at more than $400 million, has contributed $253.5 million toward Elks’ charitable projects nationwide.

1945 American forces liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp. (World War II)
1951 United States President Harry Truman relieved General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of overall command in Korea. (Korean War)
1951 The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, was found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey. It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its place in Westminster Abbey.
1968 United States President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.
1970 Apollo 13 was launched.

Apollo 13 Insignia

Apollo 13 Insignia

Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the American Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 13:13 CST from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module upon which the Command Module depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to jury-rig the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17.The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 137 nautical miles (254 kilometers) above the lunar surface, and 248,655 miles (400,171 km) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. “Jack” Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original Command Module pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.

1989 Philadelphia Flyers’ Ron Hextall became the first goaltender in NHL history to score a goal in the playoffs.

Ron Hextall

Ron Hextall

The Flyers were playing against the Washington Capitals. It was Hextall’s second goal, the first being scored on December 8, 1987 against the Boston Bruins. While both Hextall and the New Jersey Devils’ Martin Brodeur have scored more than one goal, Hextall is the only goaltender to score twice by directly shooting the puck into the opponent’s net (shot on goal). Brodeur has two goals for being the last player to touch the puck on someone else’s shot. Hextall’s second goal is the only goal scored by a goaltender while his team was short handed (having fewer players on the ice during play as a result of a penalty).

Ron Hextall

Ron Hextall

Hextall holds the NHL record for the “Most Penalty Minutes in One Season by NHL Goalies” with 113 minutes in the 1988–1989 season. He’s also numbers 2 and 3 for 1986–1987 and 1987–1988 seasons with 104 minutes in each, as well as 8th with 56 minutes for 1992–1993, 13th with 52 minutes for 1993–1994, and 22nd with 43 minutes for 1996–1997.

2012 Magnitude 8.6 MW and 8.2 MW earthquakes hit Indonesia, off northern coast of Sumatra.

2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes

2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes

The 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes were magnitude 8.6 MW and 8.2 MW undersea earthquakes that struck near the Indonesian province of Aceh on April 11, 2012. The only casualties were 10 dead and 12 injured.The 8.6 MW earthquake was the largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded, the 13th strongest earthquake since 1900, and an unusually strong intraplate earthquake (intraplate earthquakes are relatively rare, occurring in the interior of a tectonic plate, whereas an interplate earthquake is one that occurs at a plate boundary).

The 8.6 MW earthquake hit at 15:38 local time (08:38 UTC) about 379 miles (610 kilometers) southwest of Banda Aceh, Indonesia at a depth of 14.2 miles (22.9 kilometers). It was felt as far away as Malaysia, the Maldives, Tibet, and India. The earthquake was caused by a strike-slip motion — meaning that the crust on either side of the fault shifted against each other horizontally, rather than vertically. The earthquake and the largest aftershock had a fault displacement of 70 feet (21.3 meters). The strike-slip nature of the earthquake meant that the movement displaced relatively little seawater and was less likely to cause a tsunami.

The 8.2 MW aftershock hit at 17:43 local time (10:43 UTC) about 267 miles (430 kilometers) southwest of Banda Aceh at a depth of 10.2 miles (16.4 kilometers). Many aftershocks with magnitude readings between 5.0 to 6.0 were recorded for several hours after the initial earthquake.

Salton Sea Area

Updated April 5, 2016


Communities


Points of Interest

Bombay Beach Ruins

Davis-Schrimpf Seep Field

East Jesus

International Banana Museum

Salton Sea Test Base

Salvation Mountain

Slab City


Links for More Information

Palindromic Prime Numbers, Part 2

So the question was asked on this page, “Are there any four-digit prime numbers?”

Stop here and go to the other page if you want to read the first part about palindromic prime numbers and try to answer the question before reading the answer below.


You’re still here, so here’s the answer.

No. There are no four-digit palindromic prime numbers. There are also no six-digit, eight-digit, or other even-number-of-digits palindromic prime numbers, except the two-digit 11.

Every even-number-of-digits palindromic number is evenly divisible by 11.

There is an easy test to see if a number is evenly divisible by 11. Take the digits of the number and, starting with the left side going toward the right side, alternate between subtracting and adding the digits. If the total is 0 or a multiple of 11, the number is evenly divisible by 11, otherwise it is not evenly divisible by 11. Here are some examples with five-digit palindromic prime numbers:

10,301 (the smallest five-digit palindromic prime) is not evenly divisible by 11 because:

1 – 0 + 3 – 0 + 1 = 5     (10,301 ÷ 11 = 936.45…).

14,641 is evenly divisible by 11 because:

1 – 4 + 6 – 4 + 1 = 0     (14,641 ÷ 11 = 1,331).

98,689 (the largest five-digit palindromic prime) is not divisible by 11 because:

9 – 8 + 6 – 8 + 9 = 8     (98,689 ÷ 8971.72…)

Four-digit palindromic numbers follow the pattern “abba”, for example, 1221, 6446, and 8228. When calculating whether or not the number is evenly divisible by 11, we end up with:

ab + ba

This pattern will always result in 0 because we are adding an a and subtracting an a, subtracting a b and adding a b. This also applies to all other even-digit palindromic numbers.


Here is a list of all the four-digit prime numbers in case you want to check it out for yourself:

1009, 1013, 1019, 1021, 1031, 1033, 1039, 1049, 1051, 1061, 1063, 1069, 1087, 1091, 1093, 1097, 1103, 1109, 1117, 1123, 1129, 1151, 1153, 1163, 1171, 1181, 1187, 1193, 1201, 1213, 1217, 1223, 1229, 1231, 1237, 1249, 1259, 1277, 1279, 1283, 1289, 1291, 1297, 1301, 1303, 1307, 1319, 1321, 1327, 1361, 1367, 1373, 1381, 1399, 1409, 1423, 1427, 1429, 1433, 1439, 1447, 1451, 1453, 1459, 1471, 1481, 1483, 1487, 1489, 1493, 1499, 1511, 1523, 1531, 1543, 1549, 1553, 1559, 1567, 1571, 1579, 1583, 1597, 1601, 1607, 1609, 1613, 1619, 1621, 1627, 1637, 1657, 1663, 1667, 1669, 1693, 1697, 1699, 1709, 1721, 1723, 1733, 1741, 1747, 1753, 1759, 1777, 1783, 1787, 1789, 1801, 1811, 1823, 1831, 1847, 1861, 1867, 1871, 1873, 1877, 1879, 1889, 1901, 1907, 1913, 1931, 1933, 1949, 1951, 1973, 1979, 1987, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2011, 2017, 2027, 2029, 2039, 2053, 2063, 2069, 2081, 2083, 2087, 2089, 2099, 2111, 2113, 2129, 2131, 2137, 2141, 2143, 2153, 2161, 2179, 2203, 2207, 2213, 2221, 2237, 2239, 2243, 2251, 2267, 2269, 2273, 2281, 2287, 2293, 2297, 2309, 2311, 2333, 2339, 2341, 2347, 2351, 2357, 2371, 2377, 2381, 2383, 2389, 2393, 2399, 2411, 2417, 2423, 2437, 2441, 2447, 2459, 2467, 2473, 2477, 2503, 2521, 2531, 2539, 2543, 2549, 2551, 2557, 2579, 2591, 2593, 2609, 2617, 2621, 2633, 2647, 2657, 2659, 2663, 2671, 2677, 2683, 2687, 2689, 2693, 2699, 2707, 2711, 2713, 2719, 2729, 2731, 2741, 2749, 2753, 2767, 2777, 2789, 2791, 2797, 2801, 2803, 2819, 2833, 2837, 2843, 2851, 2857, 2861, 2879, 2887, 2897, 2903, 2909, 2917, 2927, 2939, 2953, 2957, 2963, 2969, 2971, 2999, 3001, 3011, 3019, 3023, 3037, 3041, 3049, 3061, 3067, 3079, 3083, 3089, 3109, 3119, 3121, 3137, 3163, 3167, 3169, 3181, 3187, 3191, 3203, 3209, 3217, 3221, 3229, 3251, 3253, 3257, 3259, 3271, 3299, 3301, 3307, 3313, 3319, 3323, 3329, 3331, 3343, 3347, 3359, 3361, 3371, 3373, 3389, 3391, 3407, 3413, 3433, 3449, 3457, 3461, 3463, 3467, 3469, 3491, 3499, 3511, 3517, 3527, 3529, 3533, 3539, 3541, 3547, 3557, 3559, 3571, 3581, 3583, 3593, 3607, 3613, 3617, 3623, 3631, 3637, 3643, 3659, 3671, 3673, 3677, 3691, 3697, 3701, 3709, 3719, 3727, 3733, 3739, 3761, 3767, 3769, 3779, 3793, 3797, 3803, 3821, 3823, 3833, 3847, 3851, 3853, 3863, 3877, 3881, 3889, 3907, 3911, 3917, 3919, 3923, 3929, 3931, 3943, 3947, 3967, 3989, 4001, 4003, 4007, 4013, 4019, 4021, 4027, 4049, 4051, 4057, 4073, 4079, 4091, 4093, 4099, 4111, 4127, 4129, 4133, 4139, 4153, 4157, 4159, 4177, 4201, 4211, 4217, 4219, 4229, 4231, 4241, 4243, 4253, 4259, 4261, 4271, 4273, 4283, 4289, 4297, 4327, 4337, 4339, 4349, 4357, 4363, 4373, 4391, 4397, 4409, 4421, 4423, 4441, 4447, 4451, 4457, 4463, 4481, 4483, 4493, 4507, 4513, 4517, 4519, 4523, 4547, 4549, 4561, 4567, 4583, 4591, 4597, 4603, 4621, 4637, 4639, 4643, 4649, 4651, 4657, 4663, 4673, 4679, 4691, 4703, 4721, 4723, 4729, 4733, 4751, 4759, 4783, 4787, 4789, 4793, 4799, 4801, 4813, 4817, 4831, 4861, 4871, 4877, 4889, 4903, 4909, 4919, 4931, 4933, 4937, 4943, 4951, 4957, 4967, 4969, 4973, 4987, 4993, 4999, 5003, 5009, 5011, 5021, 5023, 5039, 5051, 5059, 5077, 5081, 5087, 5099, 5101, 5107, 5113, 5119, 5147, 5153, 5167, 5171, 5179, 5189, 5197, 5209, 5227, 5231, 5233, 5237, 5261, 5273, 5279, 5281, 5297, 5303, 5309, 5323, 5333, 5347, 5351, 5381, 5387, 5393, 5399, 5407, 5413, 5417, 5419, 5431, 5437, 5441, 5443, 5449, 5471, 5477, 5479, 5483, 5501, 5503, 5507, 5519, 5521, 5527, 5531, 5557, 5563, 5569, 5573, 5581, 5591, 5623, 5639, 5641, 5647, 5651, 5653, 5657, 5659, 5669, 5683, 5689, 5693, 5701, 5711, 5717, 5737, 5741, 5743, 5749, 5779, 5783, 5791, 5801, 5807, 5813, 5821, 5827, 5839, 5843, 5849, 5851, 5857, 5861, 5867, 5869, 5879, 5881, 5897, 5903, 5923, 5927, 5939, 5953, 5981, 5987, 6007, 6011, 6029, 6037, 6043, 6047, 6053, 6067, 6073, 6079, 6089, 6091, 6101, 6113, 6121, 6131, 6133, 6143, 6151, 6163, 6173, 6197, 6199, 6203, 6211, 6217, 6221, 6229, 6247, 6257, 6263, 6269, 6271, 6277, 6287, 6299, 6301, 6311, 6317, 6323, 6329, 6337, 6343, 6353, 6359, 6361, 6367, 6373, 6379, 6389, 6397, 6421, 6427, 6449, 6451, 6469, 6473, 6481, 6491, 6521, 6529, 6547, 6551, 6553, 6563, 6569, 6571, 6577, 6581, 6599, 6607, 6619, 6637, 6653, 6659, 6661, 6673, 6679, 6689, 6691, 6701, 6703, 6709, 6719, 6733, 6737, 6761, 6763, 6779, 6781, 6791, 6793, 6803, 6823, 6827, 6829, 6833, 6841, 6857, 6863, 6869, 6871, 6883, 6899, 6907, 6911, 6917, 6947, 6949, 6959, 6961, 6967, 6971, 6977, 6983, 6991, 6997, 7001, 7013, 7019, 7027, 7039, 7043, 7057, 7069, 7079, 7103, 7109, 7121, 7127, 7129, 7151, 7159, 7177, 7187, 7193, 7207, 7211, 7213, 7219, 7229, 7237, 7243, 7247, 7253, 7283, 7297, 7307, 7309, 7321, 7331, 7333, 7349, 7351, 7369, 7393, 7411, 7417, 7433, 7451, 7457, 7459, 7477, 7481, 7487, 7489, 7499, 7507, 7517, 7523, 7529, 7537, 7541, 7547, 7549, 7559, 7561, 7573, 7577, 7583, 7589, 7591, 7603, 7607, 7621, 7639, 7643, 7649, 7669, 7673, 7681, 7687, 7691, 7699, 7703, 7717, 7723, 7727, 7741, 7753, 7757, 7759, 7789, 7793, 7817, 7823, 7829, 7841, 7853, 7867, 7873, 7877, 7879, 7883, 7901, 7907, 7919, 7927, 7933, 7937, 7949, 7951, 7963, 7993, 8009, 8011, 8017, 8039, 8053, 8059, 8069, 8081, 8087, 8089, 8093, 8101, 8111, 8117, 8123, 8147, 8161, 8167, 8171, 8179, 8191, 8209, 8219, 8221, 8231, 8233, 8237, 8243, 8263, 8269, 8273, 8287, 8291, 8293, 8297, 8311, 8317, 8329, 8353, 8363, 8369, 8377, 8387, 8389, 8419, 8423, 8429, 8431, 8443, 8447, 8461, 8467, 8501, 8513, 8521, 8527, 8537, 8539, 8543, 8563, 8573, 8581, 8597, 8599, 8609, 8623, 8627, 8629, 8641, 8647, 8663, 8669, 8677, 8681, 8689, 8693, 8699, 8707, 8713, 8719, 8731, 8737, 8741, 8747, 8753, 8761, 8779, 8783, 8803, 8807, 8819, 8821, 8831, 8837, 8839, 8849, 8861, 8863, 8867, 8887, 8893, 8923, 8929, 8933, 8941, 8951, 8963, 8969, 8971, 8999, 9001, 9007, 9011, 9013, 9029, 9041, 9043, 9049, 9059, 9067, 9091, 9103, 9109, 9127, 9133, 9137, 9151, 9157, 9161, 9173, 9181, 9187, 9199, 9203, 9209, 9221, 9227, 9239, 9241, 9257, 9277, 9281, 9283, 9293, 9311, 9319, 9323, 9337, 9341, 9343, 9349, 9371, 9377, 9391, 9397, 9403, 9413, 9419, 9421, 9431, 9433, 9437, 9439, 9461, 9463, 9467, 9473, 9479, 9491, 9497, 9511, 9521, 9533, 9539, 9547, 9551, 9587, 9601, 9613, 9619, 9623, 9629, 9631, 9643, 9649, 9661, 9677, 9679, 9689, 9697, 9719, 9721, 9733, 9739, 9743, 9749, 9767, 9769, 9781, 9787, 9791, 9803, 9811, 9817, 9829, 9833, 9839, 9851, 9857, 9859, 9871, 9883, 9887, 9901, 9907, 9923, 9929, 9931, 9941, 9949, 9967, and 9973.