Category Archives: Crime

Common Legal Abbreviations

A. Atlantic Reporter
A.2d Atlantic Reporter, Second Series
A.B.A. American Bar Association
American Bar Association
Wikipedia: American Bar Association
A.G. Attorney General’s Opinions
A.L.R. American Law Reports
A.L.R. 2d American Law Reports, Second Series
A.L.R. 3d American Law Reports, Third Series
A.L.R. 4th American Law Reports, Fourth Series
A.L.R. 5th American Law Reports, Fifth Series
A.L.R. 6th American Law Reports, Sixth Series
A.L.R. Fed. American Law Reports, Federal
A.L.R. Fed. 2d American Law Reports, Federal, Second Series
Am.Jur. American Jurisprudence
Am.Jur. 2d American Jurisprudence, Second Series
BNA Bureau of National Affairs
C. California Reports
C.2d California Reports, Second Series
C.3d California Reports, Third Series
C.4th California Reports, Fourth Series
C.C.A. Circuit Court of Appeal, U.S.
C.C.H. Commerce Clearing House
C.C.R. California Code of Regulations
CEB Continuing Education of the Bar (California)
C.F.R. Code of Federal Regulation
C.J. Corpus Juris
C.J.S. Corpus Juris Secundum
C.L.I. Current Law Index (Information Access)
Cal. California Reports
Cal. 2d California Reports, Second Series
Justia: Cal. 2d Supreme Court of California Cases
Cal. 3d California Reports, Third Series
Justia: Cal. 3d Supreme Court of California Cases
Cal. 4th California Reports, Fourth Series
Justia: Cal. 4th Supreme Court of California Cases
Cal. Admin. Code California Administrative Code
Cal. App. California Appellate Reports
Cal. App. 2d California Appellate Reports, Second Series
Justia: Cal. App. 2d California Court of Appeal Cases
Cal. App. 3d California Appellate Reports, Third Series
Justia: Cal. App. 3d California Court of Appeal Cases
Cal. App. 4th California Appellate Reports., Fourth Series
Justia: Cal. App. 4th California Court of Appeal Cases
Cal. Code. Regs. California Code of Regulations
Cal. Jur. California Jurisprudence
Cal. Jur. 2d California Jurisprudence, Second Series
Cal. Jur. 3d California Jurisprudence, Third Series
Cal. Rptr. California Reporter (West)
Cal. Rptr. 2d California Reporter, Second Series (West)
Cal. Rptr. 3d California Reporter, Third Series (West)
Cal. S.B.J. California State Bar Journal
cert. certiorari
cf. confer
Indicates the reader should compare a statement with that from the cited source.
Cir.Ct. Circuit Court
Cl.Ct. Claims Court or United States Claims Court Reporter
Cong. Rec. Congressional Record
Ct.Cl. Court of Claims or Court of Claims Reports
Cum. Bull. Cumulative Bulletin (IRS)
D.A.R. Daily Appellate Report (published with the Los Angeles Daily Journal)
D.C. District Court; District of Columbia
Dec. Dig. Decennial Digest
eff. effective
et al. et alii “and others”
et seq. et sequens “and the following”
F. Federal Reporter
F.2d Federal Reporter, Second Series
F.3d Federal Reporter, Third Series
F. App’x Federal Appendix
F. R. Federal Register
F.R.D. Federal Rules Decisions
F. Supp. Federal Supplement
F. Supp. 2d Federal Supplement, Second Series
Fed. Cl. Court of Federal Claims or Federal Claims Reporter
Fed. Reg. Federal Register
Gen. Dig. General Digest (West)
I.L.P. Index to Legal Periodicals (H.W. Wilson)
I.R.C. Internal Revenue Code, United States
ibid. ibidem “in the same place (book, etc.)”
id. idem “the same (man)” — used to avoid repeating the name of a male author (in citations, footnotes, bibliographies, etc.). When quoting a female author, use the corresponding feminine form, ead. (eadem), “the same (woman)”.
Juv. Ct. Juvenile Court
L.A.D.J. Los Angeles Daily Journal
L.Ed. Lawyers’ Edition, U.S. Supreme Court Reports
L.Ed. 2d Lawyers’ Edition, U.S. Supreme Court Reports, Second Series
L.R.I. Legal Resource Index (Information Access)
L.S.A. List of Sections Affected
Mun. Ct. Municipal Court
N.E. North Eastern Reporter
N.E. 2d North Eastern Reporter, Second Series
N.W. North Western Reporter
N.W. 2d North Western Reporter, Second Series
P. Pacific Reporter
P. 2d Pacific Reporter, Second Series
P. 3d Pacific Reporter, Third Series
P-H Prentice-Hall
P.L. Public Law
R.I.A. Research Institute of America
Re in the matter of, concerning
Rev. Proc. Revenue Procedure (IRS)
Rev. Rul. Revenue Ruling (IRS)
S. Southern Reporter
S.2d. Southern Reporter, Second Series
So. Southern Reporter
So.2d Southern Reporter, Second Series
S.E. South Eastern Reporter
S.E.2d South Eastern Reporter, Second Series
S.Ct. Supreme Court Reporter (West)
Stat. Statute, or U.S. Statutes at Large
Sup.Ct. Supreme Court
Super.Ct. Superior Court
S.W. South Western Reporter
S.W.2d South Western Reporter, Second Series
S.W.3d South Western Reporter, Third Series
T.C. Reports of the United States Tax Court
T.C. Memo Tax Court Memorandum Decisions
U.S. United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, orders, case tables, and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Supreme Court of the United States: Opinions
Wikipedia: United States Reports
U.S.C. United States Code
U.S.C.A. United States Code Annotated (West)
U.S.C.C.A.N. U.S. Code Congressional & Administrative News (West)
U.S.C.S. United States Code Service (LexisNexis)
U.S.L.W. United States Law Week (BNA)
USTC United States Tax Cases (CCH)


First Lawsuit of Its Kind Blames Marijuana for Murder

Reefer Madness (1936) Reefer Madness (1936)

The Burning Question (1936), alternate title for Reefer Madness The Burning Question (1936), alternate title for Reefer Madness

It must be time to get out that old copy of Reefer Madness and watch it again. I’ve forgotten that marijuana has the ability to turn people into crazed killers.

The family of a Denver woman whose husband killed her after eating marijuana-infused taffy has sued the manufacturer who made the candy and the retailer who sold it. The Denver Post says the case “appears to be the country’s first wrongful-death lawsuit against the recreational marijuana industry,” and it surely won’t be the last. But any lawsuit that blames marijuana for murder faces steep obstacles because causation is virtually impossible to prove when a cannabis consumer does something that cannabis consumers almost never do.

Kristine Kirk, a 44-year-old mother of three, died on April 14, 2014, after her husband, Richard, shot her in the head. He had been behaving oddly, jumping in and out of windows and raving about the end of the world, after eating a few bites of Karma Kandy Orange Ginger taffy that he bought that evening at Nutritional Elements, a marijuana store on South Colorado Boulevard in Denver. The lawsuit, which was filed by Kristine’s parents and sister on behalf of her three sons, argues that Nutritional Elements and Gaia’s Garden, which made the candy, failed to adequately warn Richard about the hazards of consuming too much.

According to Richard Kirk’s public defender (who has since been replaced by a private attorney), the clerk at Nutritional Elements, after learning that Kirk was an inexperienced user, did caution him against taking too large a dose, and Kirk ate more than recommended. It’s not clear exactly how much. The entire taffy contained 100 milligrams of THC, which state regulators count as 10 doses. But Kirk did not eat the whole thing, and when his blood was tested after the murder the THC concentration was just 2.3 nanograms per milliliter, less than half the level that is presumed to impair drivers under state law (but which may not in fact indicate impairment, especially in regular users). Assuming Kirk was an infrequent cannabis consumer, it is still possible that he ingested enough THC to have an unpleasant experience. But bad trips rarely end in homicide.

Read the full story at Reason magazine.