Category Archives: History

Peter Piper’s Practical Principles of Plain and Perfect Pronunciation (1836)

Adeline in her garden.

Adeline in her garden.




Willard Johnson, No. 141, South Street


Peter Piper, without Pretension to Precocity or Profoundness, Puts Pen to Paper to Produce these Puzzling Pages, Purposely to Please the Palates of Pretty Prattling Playfellows, Proudly Presuming that with Proper Penetration it will Probably, and Perhaps Positively, Prove a Peculiarly Pleasant and Profitable Path to Proper, Plain and Precise Pronunciation.

He Prays Parents to Purchase this Playful Performance, Partly to Pay him for his Patience and Pains; Partly to Provide for the Printers and Publishers; but Principally to Prevent the Pernicious Prevalence of Perverse Pronunciation.

A     a

Andrew Airpump

Andrew Airpump

Andrew Airpump ask’d his Aunt her ailment;
Did Andrew Airpump ask his Aunt her ailment?
If Andrew Airpump ask’d his Aunt her ailment,
Where was the Ailment of Andrew Airpump’s Aunt?

B     b

Billy Button

Billy Button

Billy Button bought a butter’d Biscuit:
Did Billy Button buy a butter’d Biscuit?
If Billy Button bought a butter’d Biscuit,
Where’s the butter’d Biscuit Billy Button bought?

C     c

Captain Crackskull

Captain Crackskull

Captain Crackskull crack’d a Catchpoll’s Cockscomb:
Did Captain Crackskull crack a Catchpoll’s Cockscomb?
If Captain Crackskull crack’d a Catchpoll’s Cockscomb,
Where’s the Catchpoll’s Cockscomb Captain Crackskull crack’d?

D     d

Davy Dolldrum

Davy Dolldrum

Davy Dolldrum dream’d he drove a Dragon:
Did Davy Dolldrum dream he drove a dragon?
If Davy Dolldrum dream’d he drove a dragon
Where’s the dragon Davy Dolldrum dream’d he drove?

E     e

Enoch Elkrig

Enoch Elkrig

Enoch Elkrig ate an empty Eggshell:
Did Enoch Elkrig eat an empty Eggshell?
If Enoch Elkrig ate an empty Eggshell,
Where’s the empty eggshell Enoch Elkrig ate?

F     f

Francis Fribble

Francis Fribble

Francis Fribble figured on a Frenchman’s Filly:
Did Francis Fribble figure on a Frenchman’s Filly?
If Francis Fribble figured on a Frenchman’s Filly,
Where’s the Frenchman’s Filly Francis Fribble figured on?

G     g

Gaffer Gilpin

Gaffer Gilpin

Gaffer Gilpin got a Goose and Gander:
Did Gaffer Gilpin get a Goose and Gander?
If Gaffer Gilpin got a Goose and Gander,
Where’s the Goose and Gander Gaffer Gilpin got?

H     h

Humphrey Hunchback

Humphrey Hunchback

Humphrey Hunchback had a hundred Hedgehogs:
Did Humphrey Hunchback have a hundred Hedgehogs?
If Humphrey Hunchback had a hundred Hedgehogs,
Where’s the hundred Hedgehogs Humphrey Hunchback had?

I     i

Inigo Impey

Inigo Impey

Inigo Impey itched for an Indian Image:
Did Inigo Impey itch for an Indian Image?
If Inigo Impey itched for an Indian Image,
Where’s the Indian Image Inigo Impey itch’d for?

J     j

Jumping Jackey

Jumping Jackey

Jumping Jackey jeer’d a Jesting Juggler:
Did Jumping Jackey jeer a Jesting Juggler?
If Jumping Jackey jeer’d a Jesting Juggler,
Where’s the Jesting Juggler Jumping Jackey jeer’d?

K     k

Kimbo Kemble

Kimbo Kemble

Kimbo Kemble kicked his Kinsman’s Kettle:
Did Kimbo Kemble kick his Kinsman’s Kettle?
If Kimbo Kemble kick’d his Kinsman’s Kettle,
Where’s the Kinsman’s Kettle Kimbo Kemble kick’d?

L     l

Lanky Lawrence

Lanky Lawrence

Lanky Lawrence lost his Lass and Lobster:
Did Lanky Lawrence lose his Lass and Lobster?
If Lanky Lawrence lost his Lass and Lobster,
Where are the Lass and Lobster Lanky Lawrence lost?

M     m

Matthew Mendlegs

Matthew Mendlegs

Matthew Mendlegs miss’d a mangled Monkey
Did Matthew Mendlegs miss a mangled Monkey?
If Matthew Mendlegs miss’d a mangled Monkey,
Where’s the mangled Monkey Matthew Mendlegs miss’d?

N     n

Neddy Noodle

Neddy Noodle

Neddy Noodle nipp’d his neighbour’s Nutmegs;
Did Neddy Noodle nip his neighbour’s Nutmegs?
If Neddy Noodle nipp’d his neighbour’s Nutmegs,
Where are the neighbour’s Nutmegs Neddy Noodle nipp’d?

O     o

Oliver Oglethorpe

Oliver Oglethorpe

Oliver Oglethorpe ogled an Owl and Oyster:
Did Oliver Oglethorpe ogle an Owl and Oyster?
If Oliver Oglethorpe ogled an Owl and Oyster,
Where are the Owl and Oyster Oliver Oglethorpe ogled?

P     p

Peter Piper

Peter Piper

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled Peppers:
Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled Peppers?
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled Peppers,
Where’s the peck of pickled Peppers Peter Piper picked?

Q     q

Quixote Quicksight

Quixote Quicksight

Quixote Quicksight quiz’d a queerish Quidbox:
Did Quixote Quicksight quiz a queerish Quidbox?
If Quixote Quicksight quiz’d a queerish Quidbox,
Where’s the queerish Quidbox Quixote Quicksight quiz’d?

R     r

Rory Rumpus

Rory Rumpus

Rory Rumpus rode a raw-bon’d Race-horse:
Did Rory Rumpus ride a raw-bon’d Race-horse?
If Rory Rumpus rode a raw-bon’d Race-horse,
Where’s the raw-bon’d Race-horse Rory Rumpus rode?

S     s

Sammy Smellie

Sammy Smellie

Sammy Smellie smelt a smell of Small-coal:
Did Sammy Smellie smell a smelt of Small-coal?
If Sammy Smellie smelt a smell of Small-coal,
Where’s the smell of Small-coal Sammy Smellie smelt?

T     t

Tip-toe Tommy

Tip-toe Tommy

Tip-toe Tommy turn’d a Turk for Two-pence:
Did Tip-toe Tommy turn a Turk for Two-pence?
If Tip-toe Tommy turn’d a Turk for Two-pence,
Where’s the Turk for Two-pence Tip-toe Tommy turn’d?

U     u

Uncle’s Usher

Uncle’s Usher

Uncle’s Usher urg’d an ugly Urchin:
Did Uncle’s Usher urge an ugly Urchin?
If Uncle’s Usher urg’d an ugly Urchin,
Where’s the ugly Urchin Uncle’s Usher urg’d?

V     v

Villiam Veedon

Villiam Veedon

Villiam Veedon vip’d his Vig and Vaistcoat:
Did Villiam Veedon vipe his Vig and Vaistcoat?
If Villiam Veedon vip’d his Vig and Vaistcoat,
Where are the Vig and Vaistcoat Villiam Veedon vip’d?

W     w

Walter Waddle

Walter Waddle

Walter Waddle won a Walking Wager:
Did Walter Waddle win a Walking Wager?
If Walter Waddle won a Walking Wager,
Where’s the Walking Wager Walter Waddle won?

X Y Z     x y z

X Y and Z

X Y and Z

X Y and Z have made my brains to crack-o:
X smokes, Y snuffs, and Z chews tobacco;
Yet oft by X Y Z much learning’s taught,
But PETER PIPER, beats them all to naught.


I’m not too young for GOD to see:
He knows my name and nature too,
And all day long he looks at me,
And sees my actions through and through.
He listens to the words I say,
And knows the thoughts I have within,
And whether I’m at work or play,
He’s sure to see me if I sin.
Oh! how could children tell a lie,
Or cheat in play, or steal, or fight,
If they remembered GOD was by,
And had them always in his sight!
If some good minister is near,
It makes us careful what we do;
And how much more ought we to fear
The LORD who sees us through and through.
Then when I want to do amiss,
However pleasant it may be,
I’ll always try to think of this—
I’m not too young for GOD to see!

Anonymous. Peter Piper’s Practical Principles of Plain and Perfect Pronunciation. Philadelphia: Willard Johnson, No. 141, South Street, 1836. Print.

The Great Democracy Scam of 2016

Some Great Quotes

Rather than a democracy, we increasingly have an elective dictatorship. People are merely permitted to choose who will violate the laws and trample the Constitution.

— James Bovard, in The Great Democracy Scam of 2016, September 29, 2016.

Election results are often only a one-day snapshot of transient mass delusions.

— James Bovard, in The Great Democracy Scam of 2016, September 29, 2016.

But the Constitution has long since vanished from the campaign trail, replaced by competing promises of new handouts and fiercer attacks on imagined perils.

— James Bovard, in The Great Democracy Scam of 2016, September 29, 2016.

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John Adams: “There is nothing I dread So much, as a Division of the Republick into two great Parties…”

There is nothing I dread So much, as a Division of the Republick into two great Parties, each arranged under its Leader, and concerting Measures in opposition to each other. This, in my humble Apprehension is to be dreaded as the greatest political Evil, under our Constitution.

— John Adams, in letter to Jonathan Jackson, October 2, 1780.

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Converting Between Julian Dates and Gregorian Calendar Dates in Fortran (and JavaScript)

When looking through some of my old papers I found at my father’s house after he died, I found some old Fortran code for converting Gergorian calendar dates to and from Julian dates. I haven’t used Fortran since the 1970s, so the code looked a little strange.Some examples of Julian dates:

Julian Date Equivalent Gregorian Date
2369916.0 July 4, 1776 12:00:00.0 UT
2436911.509722 December 9, 1959 00:14:00.0 UT (the time of my birth)
2457533.5 May 25, 2016 00:00:00.0 UT

Julian dates are a continuous count of days since Greenwich Mean Noon on January 1, 4713 BCE. January 1, 4713 BCE is also known as -4712 January 1 when used for astronomical calculations. The apparent one year difference is due to there being no year 0—the day after December 31, 1 BCE was January 1, 1 CE. It makes adding and subtracting dates easier.

Greenwich Mean Noon is 12:00 noon UT (Universal Time). UT is a time standard based on Earth’s rotation. It is a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), i.e., the mean solar time on the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, London, UK. In fact, the expression “Universal Time” is ambiguous when accuracy of better than a few seconds is required, as there are several versions of it, the most commonly used being Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and UT1. All of these versions of UT, except for UTC, are based on Earth’s rotation relative to distant celestial objects (stars and quasars), but with a scaling factor and other adjustments to make them closer to solar time. UTC, on the other hand, is based on International Atomic Time, with leap seconds added to keep it within 0.9 second of UT1.

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Telephone Exchange Names

This article is still being worked on, but I wanted to share it before it was completed. If you want to be notified when it is updated leave a comment below.

When I was a child I lived in San Bernardino, California from 1966 to 1969. I can still remember my home telephone number: TUrner 5-2176, sometimes abbreviated as TU 5-2176. My grandparents’ telephone number was TU 3-5155.

If I wanted to call my grandparents, since we both lived in the TUrner area, I only had to dial 3-5155. But if I called someone outside the TUrner area, I had to include the two letters, for example, to call someone at UNion 4-7721 I had to dial 864-7721.

So what or who was TUrner?

The Central Office

Prior to 1955, many people had been using exchange names that were not included in the official list and they were not required to change them. For example, I remember advertisements on television urging me to call RIchmond 9-5171 to go see Championship Wrestling at the Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles. The official exchange names were PIlgrim, PIoneer, RIverside, RIverview, SHadyside, and SHerwood.

The National Numbering Plan

The National Number consists of ten digits as follows.

Table 1. Composition of the National Number.
Listed Directory Number
Area Code Office Code Station Number
X1 X2 X3 L L N N N N N

L = Any letter from Table 2 below.
N = Any numeral from 0 to 9.
X1 = Any numeral from 2 to 9.
X2 = 0 (zero) or 1.
X3 = Any numeral from 0 to 9 when X2 = 0. Any numeral from 0 to 9 except 1 when X2 = 1.

Table 2. Dial Pulses Corresponding to the Letters of the Office Code Portion of the National Number.
Letters No. of Dial Pulses
A   B   C 2
D   E   F 3
G   H   I 4
J   K   L 5
M   N   O 6
P   R   S 7
T   U   V 8
W   X   Y 9

The information in Tables 1 and 2 was taken from “Section II Chart 1: The National Numbering Plan” in Notes on Nationwide Dialing (1955).

List of Suitable Central Office Names

Table 3. List of Suitable Central Office Names.
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
for radio
for radio
62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
for radio
for radio
YUkon WYandotte

The information in Table 3 was taken from “Section II Appendix A: List of Suitable Central Office Names” in Notes on Nationwide Dialing (1955).


American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Notes on Nationwide Dialing. 1955.

The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat

Text of Item
Library of Congress Data

I love old advertising. Sometimes I come across some that I have to share.

Eliphalet Whittlesey of Mullica, New Jersey invented a “Gardners’ Stool” that was assigned U.S. Patent 40,301 on October 13, 1863.

The Gardener's Patent Locomotive Seat
The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat

Text of Item

The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat.

Patented, October, 1863.

The invention represented above, is designed to relieve a want long and seriously felt by Gardeners, Florists, Strawberry-pickers, &c., by furnishing an ever-ready support in all cases where their hands need to be employed on or near the ground.

Its chief advantages are:

Simplicity. It consists only of a malleable iron foot-piece with an oblique standard and seat of wood, all (weighing about one pound), firmly and quickly attached to the foot by two straps.

Locomotion. It enables the wearer to walk about at pleasure (the stool constantly attending him), with both hands free for other purposes.

Adaptation. It can be used between the thickest rows, or wherever the wearer can set his foot.

This stool when sold, will be delivered to the Express at Hammonton, New Jersey, on receipt of the price, $1.00.

Orders solicited by

Patentee and Manufacturer, Hammonton, Atlantic Co., New Jersey.

Quinn, Pr. 3d & Market Phila.


Library of Congress Data

The gardener’s patent locomotive seat … E. Whittlesey. Patentee and manufacturer … Philadelphia Quinn, Pr. 3d & Market St. [1863?].

Contributor Names
Whittlesey, E.

Created / Published
Philadelphia, 1863.

Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 158, Folder 22.

United States–Pennsylvania–Philadelphia.

1 p.; 30 x 20 cm.

Call Number
Portfolio 158, Folder 22

Part of
Broadsides, leaflets, and pamphlets from America and Europe

Digital ID
rbpe 15802200

Part of…
American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera
Rare Book and Special Collections Division
American Memory


Whittlesey, E.


United States


United States


Whittlesey, Eliphalet. “The Gardener’s Patent Locomotive Seat. Philadelphia, 1863”. Image. United States Library of Congress. Accessed April 15, 2016.

Whittlesey, Eliphalet. “Gardeners’ Stool”. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Accessed April 15, 2016.

Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater is located at 37°10’36.5”N 116°02’47.0”W (37.176820, -116.046382) in Area 10 on the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site) near Mercury, Nye County, Nevada. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places (#94000183) on March 21, 1994.

Project Plowshare and the Sedan Experiment

The United States Atomic Energy Commission’s Project Plowshare was intended to develop techniques to use nuclear explosives for peaceful construction purposes. In the 1960s and 1970s, during the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union carried out a number of Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE).

The PNEs were nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development, the creation of canals, rock blasting, stimulation of tight gas, chemical element manufacture (test shot Anacostia resulted in Curium-250m being discovered), unlocking some of the mysteries of the so-called “r-Process” of stellar nucleosynthesis, probing the composition of the Earth’s deep crust, creating reflection seismology data, and mining company prospecting.

There was significant public opposition to Project Plowshare’s 27 nuclear projects, which eventually led to the program’s termination in 1977. Some of the consequences of the program included the deposition of fallout from radioactive material being injected into the atmosphere and tritiated water (T2O, a radioactive form of water where the usual hydrogen atoms are replaced with tritium) which was projected to increase to a level of 2% of the then-maximum level for drinking water.

The Sedan Experiment was a part of Project Plowshare to take place at the Nevada Test Site consisted of detonating a 100-kiloton thermonuclear device 635 feet underground. The device was relatively clean as far as thermonuclear devices go—fission contributed less than 30% of the total yield. The device was buried in a 36-inch diameter cased hole that was back-filled with sand.


The predicted crater diameter was 1,200–1,400 feet (366–427 meters) and the depth from about 170–300 feet (52–91 meters). About 95 per cent of the radioactivity produced by the explosion would be trapped underground. The heavier fallout would be confined to within about two miles upwind and crosswind, and four miles downwind of ground zero.


On July 6, 1962 at 10:00 PDT (17:00:00 UT) the device was detonated. The detonation created a crater 1,200 feet (366 meters) across and 320 feet (98 meters) deep. About 7.5 million cubic yards (5.7 million cubic meters)—12 million US tons (10.9 million metric tons)—of earth and rock were removed. A 12,000-foot (3658-meter) dust cloud formed of some of the smaller earth particles. The lip of the crater (Hal in the diagram below) varied in height from about 20 feet (6 meters) to 100 feet (30 meters).

Nuclear Explosion Crater Cross Section
Nuclear Explosion Crater Cross Section [Glasstone and Dolan, 1977]


SZ surface zero 37°10’36.5”N 116°02’47.0”W
(37.176820, -116.046382)
DOB depth of burst 635 feet (194 meters)
Da apparent depth 320 feet (98 meters)
Dal depth from the lip crest 340–420 feet (104–128 meters)
Hal height of the lip crest from the original ground surface 20–100 feet (6–30 meters)
Average 33 feet (__ meters)
Ra apparent radius 1,200 feet (366 meters)
Ral radius to crater lip crest
Re radius of ejecta

The exact percentage of escaping radioactivity could not be obtained from the available preliminary data, but there was no major deviation from the prediction. The dust cloud carried the small amount of radioactivity which was not trapped underground or deposited close to the crater north at a speed of about 12 miles per hour. The fallout was in line predictions.


Crater from the 1962 “Sedan” nuclear test as part of Operation Plowshare. The 104 kiloton blast displaced 12 million US tons (10.9 million metric tons) of earth and created a crater 320 feet (98 meters) deep and 1,200 feet (366 meters) wide. (Look to the size of the roads in the bottom-right of the picture, and the observation deck at the lower-right edge of the crater, for a sense of scale.)

Sedan Crater
Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Field Office.

Sedan Crater at Nevada Test Site with the information sign about the project. The image was created from a dozen smaller images and stitched together using Hugin software.

Sedan Crater Panorama
Photo courtesy of Jarek Tuszynski / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

Sedan Crater aerial view.

Sedan Crater Aerial View
Original image source unknown.

Sedan Crater aerial view.

Sedan Crater Aerial View
Original image source unknown.

Statistics about Sedan Crater and other nearby craters are described in the image.

Sedan Crater and Nearby Craters Annotated
Original image source unknown.

Sedan Crater is marked on this satellite image. Many other craters are visible in the image.

Sedan Crater on Google Maps Satellite View
Based on image courtesy of Google Maps Satellite View.

Taking a Tour of the Sedan Crater

Yes! You can take a tour of the Sedan Crater and the rest of the Nevada National Security Site. The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Field Office provides free general interest tours of the Nevada National Security Site on a monthly basis.

Most tours depart from the National Atomic Testing Museum at 755 E. Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, Nevada. Tours depart at approximately 7:30 a.m. and return at 4:00 p.m. Provided transportation is usually a chartered bus equipped with a restroom.

The Nevada National Security Site is located 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Each tour usually covers about 250 miles. Tour participants should bring their own food and drinks, but no alcoholic beverages. There are no lunch stops. Casual clothing is recommended, and sturdy shoes are required for the rugged terrain. No shorts or sandals are permitted. Visitors to the Nevada National Security Site must be at least 14 years old. Pregnant women are discouraged from participating in Nevada National Security Site tours because of the long bus ride and uneven terrain.

Points of interest on the tour include:

  • Mercury, Nevada — Mercury is a closed city 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Las Vegas. It is situated within the Nevada Test Site and was constructed by the Atomic Energy Commission to house and service the staff of the test site.
  • Frenchman Flat — On January 27, 1951, the first atmospheric nuclear test, Able, took place on the Nevada National Security Site.
  • Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC) — The NPTEC is the world’s largest facility for open-air testing of hazardous materials and biological simulants.
  • Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Site — There is a low-level waste storage pit at the Nevada National Security Site.
  • Sedan Crater
  • T-1 Training Area — The soil emits low levels of radiation, simulating widespread radiological contamination from Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) or multiple Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs or “dirty bombs”), yet posing minimal risk to participants.
  • Apple II Houses — In an effort to determine the seismic effects of low yield atomic tests, three “typical American homes” were built down range from the May 5, 1955 Apple II test of 29 kilotons.

Contact the Department of Energy’s Office of Public Affairs to find out the date of the next tour. (All 2016 tours have been filled.) Reservations are required for all tours. Space is limited and seats fill quickly. Groups, civic or technical organizations, and private clubs may request specially-arranged tours (minimum of 25 people) by calling 702-295-0944.


Furlow, Robert C. “Sedan Crater” PDF. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. National Park Service. October 5, 1993. Retrieved 2009-05-25.

Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Thomas. 1977. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. USGPO.

Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. “Project Sedan On-Site Radiological Safety Report”. PDF. United States Atomic Energy Commission. April 29, 1963.

Sublette, Carey.“The Effects of Underground Explosions”. Nuclear Weapon Archive. March 30, 2001.

United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office. Image NF-12187.

United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office. “Public Tours of the Nevada National Security Site”. August 2013. Accessed April 14, 2016.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Environmental Monitoring Report For The Nevada Test Site And Other Test Areas Used For Underground Nuclear Detonations”. PDF. U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. May 1976.


The Coinage Act of 1792

The Coinage Act of 1792, also known as the Mint Act of 1792, was passed by the United States Congress on April 2, 1792. The Act established the United States Mint and regulated the coinage of the United States. The long title of the legislation is An act establishing a mint and regulating the Coins of the United States. The Act established the silver dollar as the unit of money in the United States, declared it to be lawful tender, and created a decimal system for U.S. currency.

According to the Act, the U.S. Mint was to be situated at the seat of government of the United States — Philadelphia, at that time. The five original officers of the U.S. Mint were a Director, an Assayer, a Chief Coiner, an Engraver, and a Treasurer. The Treasurer is a separate office from the Secretary of the Treasury. The Act allowed that one person could perform the functions of Chief Coiner and Engraver. The Assayer, Chief Coiner and Treasurer were required to post a $10,000 bond with the Secretary of the Treasury.

Although some of the provisions in the 1792 Coinage Act were adjusted as time went by, the majority of the rules specified in the Act remained in effect for many decades. Essentially, it provided the basic framework on which all subsequent coinage production was based. While the first draft of the Act stipulated that all coins would employ a portrait of the president on the obverse, the final version called for an image emblematic of liberty as well as the word “Liberty”. The Act also authorized construction of a mint building in Philadelphia, the nation’s capital. This was the first federal building erected under the United States Constitution. Mint director David Rittenhouse laid the building’s cornerstone on July 31.

On May 8, 1792, An Act to Provide for a Copper Coinage was signed into law by President George Washington. This legislation resulted in the birth of the copper cent, from which descends today’s one cent piece. The Act also stipulated that “the director of the mint… be authorized to contract for and purchase a quantity of copper, not exceeding one hundred and fifty tons… to be coined at the mint into cents and half-cents… and be paid into the treasury of the United States, thence to issue into circulation.” Furthermore, “no copper coins or pieces whatsoever except the said cents and half-cents, shall pass current as money, or shall be paid, or offered to be paid or received in payment for any debt, demand, claims, matter or thing whatsoever.”

Section 9 of the Act authorized production of the following coins:

Eagles $10 247 4/8 grain (16.0 g) pure or 270 grain (17.5 g) standard gold
Half Eagles $5 123 6/8 grain (8.02 g) pure or 135 grain (8.75 g) standard gold
Quarter Eagles $2.50 61 7/8 grain (4.01 g) pure or 67 4/8 grain (4.37 g) standard gold
Dollars or Units $1 371 4/16 grain (24.1 g) pure or 416 grain (27.0 g) standard silver
Half Dollars $0.50 185 10/16 grain (12.0 g) pure or 208 grain (13.5 g) standard silver
Quarter Dollars $0.25 92 13/16 grain (6.01 g) pure or 104 grains (6.74 g) standard silver
Disme $0.10 37 2/16 grain (2.41 g) pure or 41 3/5 grain (2.70 g) standard silver
Half Disme $0.05 18 9/16 grain (1.20 g) pure or 20 4/5 grain (1.35 g) standard silver
Cents $0.01 11 pennyweights (17.1 g) of copper
Half Cents $0.005 5 1/2 pennyweights (8.55 g) of copper

Section 10 of the Act requires the coins to have the following markings:

  • One side was to have an impression emblematic of liberty, with the inscription “Liberty”, and the year of the coinage.
  • The reverse side of each of the gold and silver coins was to have the figure or representation of an eagle with the inscription “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA”.
  • The reverse of the copper coins was to have an inscription expressing the denomination.

Section 11 of the Act defined the ratio of the value of gold and silver as 1:15, 1 unit of pure gold was equivalent to 15 units of pure silver. “Standard gold” was defined as 11 parts pure gold to one part alloy composed of silver and copper. “Standard silver” was defined as 1485 parts pure silver to 179 parts copper alloy. The Act also specified the dollar as the “money of account” of the United States, and directed that all accounts of the federal government be kept in dollars, dismes, cents, and milles (one-tenth of a cent or one-thousandth of a dollar). The silver content of a dollar under the Act was almost exactly equal to 1/5 of the silver content of the contemporary British pound sterling, or 4 British shillings.

Section 14 of the Act stated that any person could bring gold or silver bullion and have it coined free of charge, or later for a small fee, exchange it immediately for an equivalent value of coin.

Section 18 of the Act established quality control measures. From each separate mass of gold or silver used to produce coins, a minimum of three coins were to be set aside by the treasurer. Each year on the last Monday in July, under the inspection of the Chief Justice, the Secretary and Comptroller of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, and the Attorney General, the coins were to be assayed and if the coins did not meet established standards, the officers were disqualified from office. The meetings became formalized as the United States Assay Commission. Beginning in 1797, it met in most years at the Philadelphia Mint. Each year, the President of the United States appointed unpaid members, who would gather in Philadelphia to ensure the weight and fineness of silver and gold coins issued the previous year were to specifications. In 1971, the commission met, but for the first time had no gold or silver to test, with the end of silver coinage in 1970. Beginning in 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed no members of the public to the commission, and in 1980, he signed legislation abolishing it.

Section 19 of the Act established a penalty of death for debasing the gold or silver coins authorized by the Act, or embezzlement of the metals for those coins, by officers or employees of the mint; this section of the Act apparently remains in effect and would, in theory, continue to apply in the case of “any of the gold or silver coins which shall be struck or coined at the said mint.” (At present the only gold or silver coins struck by the US mint are the American Silver Eagle and the American Gold Eagle coins, some Proof coinage at the San Francisco Mint, such as the silver U.S. State Quarters, and much of the Commemorative coinage of the United States.) All other sections of the act have been superseded, as for example the Coinage Act of 1834 changing the gold-to-silver weight ratio. Various acts have subsequently been passed affecting the amount and type of metal in U. S. coins, so that today there is no legal definition of the term “dollar” to be found in U. S. statute.

Current statutes regulating coinage in the United States may be found in Title 31 of the United States Code, Chapter 51 — Coins and Currency.

(Regulating coins of the United States) .
. .
The Mint Act of April 2, 1792. .
. .
An act establishing a mint and regulating the Coins of the United States. .
SEC. 1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, and it is hereby enacted and declared, That a Mint for the purpose of a national coinage be, and the same is established; to be situated and carried on at the seat of the Government of the United States, for the time being: And that for the well conducting of the business of the said Mint, there shall be the following officers and persons, namely, — a Director, an assayer, a chief coiner, an engraver, a treasurer. Mint established at the
seat of Government.
SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That the Director of the Mint shall employ as many clerks, workmen, and servants as he shall from time to time find necessary, subject to the approbations of the President of the United States. Director to employ workmen, &c.
SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the respective functions and duties of the officers above mentioned shall be as follow: The Director of the Mint shall have the chief management of the business thereof, and shall superintend all others officers and persons who shall be employed therein. The assayer shall receive and give receipts for all metals which may lawfully be brought to the Mint to be coined; shall assay all such of them as may require it, and shall deliver them to the chief coiner to be coined. The chief coiner shall cause to be coined all metals which shall be received by him for that purpose, according to such regulations as shall be prescribed by this or any future law. The engraver shall sink and prepare the necessary dies for such coinage, with the proper devices and inscriptions, but it shall be lawful for the functions and duties of chief coiner and engraver to be performed by one person. The treasurer shall receive from the chief coiner all the coins which have been struck, and shall pay or deliver them to the persons respectively to whom the same ought to be paid or delivered; he shall morever [more ever] receive and safely keep all monies which shall be for the use, maintenance and support of the Mint, and shall disburse the same upon warrants signed by the Director. Duty of the officers.


Act of Mar. 3,
1794, ch. 4, sec. 2

Chief coiner.



SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That every officer and clerk of the said Mint shall, before he enters upon the execution of his office, take an oath or affirmation before some judge of the United States faithfully and diligently to perform the duties thereof. To take oath
SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the said assayer, chief coiner and treasurer, previously to entering upon the execution of their respective offices, shall each become bound to the United States of America, with one or more sureties to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury, in the sum of ten thousand dollars, with condition for the faithful and diligent performance of the duties of his office. And give bond. Act of March 3
1794, ch. 4, sec. 2
SEC. 6. And be it further enacted, That there shall be allowed and paid as compensations for their respective services—To the said Director, yearly salary of two thousand dollars, to the said assayer, a yearly salary of one thousand five hundred dollars, to the said chief coiner, a yearly salary of one thousand five hundred dollars, to the said engraver, a yearly salary of one thousand two hundred dollars, to the said treasurer, a yearly salary of one thousand two hundred dollars, to each clerk who may be employed, a yearly salary not exceeding five hundred dollars, and to the several subordinate workmen and servants, such wages and allowances as are customary and reasonable, according to their respective stations and occupations. Salaries.
SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That the accounts of the officers and persons employed in and about the said Mint and for services performed in relation thereto, and all other accounts concerning the business and administration thereof, shall be adjusted and settled in the Treasury Department of the United States, and a quarter yearly account of the receipts and disbursements of the said Mint shall rendered at the said Treasury for settlement according to such forms and regulations as shall have been prescribed by that Department; and that once in each year a report of the transactions of the said Mint, accompanied by an abstract of the settlements which shall have been from time to time made, duly certified by the Comptroller of the Treasury, shall be laid before Congress for their information. Accounts how and where to be settled
SEC. 8. And be it further enacted, That in addition to the authority vested in the Presi-dent of the United States by a resolution of the last session, touching the engagement of artists and the procuring of apparatus for the said Mint, the President be authorized, and he is hereby authorized to cause to be provided and put in proper condition such buildings, and such manner shall appear to him requisite for the purpose of carrying on the business of the said Mint; and that as well the expenses which shall have been incurred pursuant to the said resolution as those which may be incurred in providing and preparing the said buildings,, and all other expenses which may hereafter accrue for the maintenance and support of the said Mint, and in carrying on the business thereof, over and above the sums which may be received by reason of the rate per centum for coinage herein after mentioned, shall be defrayed from the Treasury of the United States, out of any monies which from time to time shall be therein, not otherwise appropriated. President of United States to cause buildings to be provided.
1794, ch. 4, sec. 2Expenses, how to be defrayed.
SEC.9. And be it further enacted,, That there shall be from time to time struck and coined at the said mint, coins of gold, silver, and copper, of the following denominations, values and descriptions, viz.  Eagles—each to be of the value of ten dollars or units, and to contain two hundred fort-seven grains and four eighths of a grain of pure, or two hundred and seventy grains of standard gold.  Half eagles—each to be of the value of five dollars, and to contain one hundred and twenty three grains and six eights of a grain of pure, or one hundred and thirty five grains of standard gold.  Quarter Eagles—each to be of the value of two dollars and a half dollar, and to contain sixty one grains and seven eights of a grain of pure, or sixty seven grains and four eights of a grain of standard gold.  Dollars or the same is now current, and to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver, Half Dollars—each to be of half the value of the dollar or unit, and to contain one hundred and eighty-five grains and ten sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or two hundred and eights of a grain of standard silver.  Quarter Dollars—each to be of one fourth the value of the dollar or unit, and to contain ninety-two grains and thirteen sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or one hundred and four grains of standard silver.  Dismes—each to be of the value of one tenth of a dollar or unit, and to contain thirty seven grains and two sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or forty one grains and three fifth parts of a grain of standard silver.  Half Dismes—each to be of the value of one twentieth of a dollar, and to contain eighteen grains and nine sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or twenty grains and four fifth parts of a grain of standard silver.  Cents—each to be of the value of the one hundredth part of a dollar, and to contain eleven penny-weights of copper.  Half Cents—each to be of the value of half a cent, and to contain five penny-weights and half a penny-weight of copper. Metals and denomination of the coins to be struck.
See act of February 12, 1873.Eagles.
See act of June 28, 1834, s. 1.
Act of January 18,  1837.Half eagles,
Ibid.Quarter eagles.

Dollars or units.
Ibid, s.9.
See Act of January 18, 1837, s.9.

Act February 12, 1873.

Half dollars.
See act of February 21, 1853, s. 1.

Quarter dollars.


Half Dimes.

See act. Of January 14, 1793; act of Mar. 3, 1795; act of Feb. 21, 1857.

Half cents.

SEC. 10. And be it further enacted, That, upon the said coins respectively, there shall be the following devices and legends, namely: Upon one side of each of the said coins there shall be an impression emblematic of liberty, with an inscription of the word Liberty, and the year of the coinage; and upon the reverse of each of the gold and silver coins there shall be the figure or representation of an eagle, with this inscription, “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,” and upon the reverse of each of the copper coins, there shall be an inscription which shall express the denomination of the piece, namely, cent or half-cent, as the ease may require. Of what devices.
SEC. 11. And be it further enacted, That the proportional value of gold to silver in all coins which shall by law be current as money within the United States, shall be as fifteen to one, according to quantity in weight, of pure gold or pure silver; that is to say, every fifteen pounds weight of pure silver shall be of equal value in all payments, with one pound weight of pure gold, and so in proportion as to any greater or less quantities of the respective medals. Ratio of gold to silver.
SEC. 12. And be it further enacted, That the standard for all gold coins of the United States shall be eleven parts fine to one part alloy; and accordingly that eleven parts in twelve of the entire weight of each of the said coins shall consist of pure gold, and the remaining one twelfth part of alloy; and the said alloy shall be composed of silver and copper, in such proportions not exceeding one half silver as shall be found convenient; to be regulated by the director of the mint, the United States, until further provision shall be made by law. And to the end that the necessary information may be had in order to the making of such further provision, it shall be the duty of the director of the mint at the expiration of a year after commencing the operations of the said mint, to report to Congress the practice thereof during the said year, touching the composition of the alloy of the said gold coins, the reasons for such practice, and the experiment and observation which shall have been concerning the effects of different proportions of silver and copper in the said alloy. Standard for gold coin and alloy, how to be regulated.
SEC. 13. And be it further enacted, That the standard of all silver coins of the United States shall be one thousand four hundred and eighty-five parts fine to one hundred and seventy-nine parts alloy; and accordingly that one thousand four hundred and eighty-five parts in one thousand six hundred and sixty four parts of the entire weight of each of the said coins shall consist of pure silver, and the remaining one hundred and seventy-nine parts of alloy; which alloy shall be wholly of copper. Director to report the practice of the mint touching the alloy of gold coins.

Standard for silver coins; alloy how to be regulated.


SEC. 14. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for any person or persons to bring to the said mint gold and silver bullion, in order to their being coined; and that the bullion so brought shall be there assayed and coined as speedily as may be after the re-ceipt thereof, and that free of expense to the person or persons by whom the said bullion shall be been coined, the person or persons by whom the same shall have been delivered, shall upon demand receive in lieu thereof coins of the same species of bullion which gold or pure silver therein contained: Provided nevertheless, bringing such bullion, and of the direction of the said mint, to make an immediate exchange of coins for standard bullion with a deduction of one half per cent. from the weight of the pure gold, or pure silver contained in the said bullion, as an indemnification to the mint for the time which will necessarily be required for coining the said bullion, and for the advance which shall have been so made in coins. And it shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to furnish the said mint from time to time whenever the state of the Treasury will admit thereof, with such sums as may be necessary for effecting the said exchanges, to be replaced as speedily as may be out of the coins which shall have been made of the bullion for which the monies so furnished shall have been exchanged; and the said deduction of one half per cent shall constitute a fund towards defraying the expenses of the said mint. Persons may bring gold and silver bullion, to be coined free of expense.

Act of April 24, 1800, chap. 34, how the director may exchange coins therefor deducting half percent.

Duty of Secretary of Treasury

The half per cent. To constitute fund,

SEC. 15. And be it further enacted, That the bullion which shall be brought as aforesaid to the mint to be coined, shall be coined, and the equivalent thereof in coins rendered, if demanded, in the order in which the said bullion shall have been brought or delivered, giving priority according to priority of delivery only, and without preference to any person or persons; and if any preference shall be given contrary to the direction aforesaid, the officer by whom such undue preference shall be given, shall in each case forfeit and pay one thousand dollar; to be recovered with costs of suit. And to the end that it may be known if such preference shall at any time be given, the assayer or officer to whom the said bullion shall be delivered to be coined, shall give to the person or persons bringing the same, a memorandum in writing under his hand, denoting the weight, fineness and value thereof, together with the day and order of its delivery into the mint. Order of delivering coins to persons bringing bullion and penalty on giving undue preference, &c.
SEC. 16. And be it further enacted, That all the gold and silver coins which have been struck at, and issued from the said mint, shall be a lawful tender in all payments whatsoever, those of full weight according to the respective values herein before declared, and those of less than full weight at values proportional to their respective weights. Coins made a lawful tender,
SEC. 17. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the respective officers of the said mint, carefully and faithfully to use their best endeavors that all the gold and silver coins which shall be struck at the said mint shall be, as nearly as may be, conformable to the several standards and weights aforesaid, and that the copper whereof the cents and half cents aforesaid may be composed, shall be of good quality. And to be made conformable to the standard weight, &c.
SEC. 18. And be it further enacted, And the better to secure a due conformity of the said gold and silver coins to their respective standards, Be it further enacted, That from every separate mass of standard gold or silver, which shall be made into coins at the said Mint, there shall be taken, set apart by the Treasurer and reserved in his custody a certain number of pieces, not less than three, and that once in every year the pieces so set apart and reserved, shall be assayed under the inspection of the Chief Justice of the United States, the Secretary for the Department of State, and the Attorney General of the United States, (who are hereby required to attend for that purpose at the said Mint, on the last Monday in July in each year, or under the inspection of any three of them, in such manner as they or a majority of them shall direct, and in the presence of the Director, assayer and chief coiner of the said Mint; and it shall be found that the gold and silver so assayed, shall not be inferior to their respective standards herein before declared more than one part in one hundred and forty-four parts, the officer or officers of the said Mint whom it may concern shall be held excusable; but if any greater inferiority shall appear, it shall be certified to the President of the United States, and the said officer or officers shall be deemed disqualified to hold their respective offices. The Treasurer to reserve not less than three
pieces of each coin to be assayed .when and by whom &c.
SEC. 19. And be it further enacted, That if any of the gold or silver coins which shall be struck or coined at the said Mint shall be debased or made worse as to the proportion of fine gold or fine silver therein contained, or shall be of less weight or value than the same ought to be pursuant to connivance of any of the officers or persons who shall be employed at the said Mint, for the purpose of profit or gain, officers or persons shall embezzle any of the metals which shall at any time be committed to their charge for the purpose of being coined at the said Mint, every such officer or person who shall commit any or either of the said offences, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and shall suffer death. Penalty for debasing the coins.
SEC. 20. And be it further enacted, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars or units, dismes or tenths, cents or hundredths, and miles or thousandths, a disme being a tenth part of a dollar, a cent the hundredth part of a dollar, a mille the thousandths part of a dollar, and that all accounts in public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. Money of account to be expressed in dollars, &c.

R. S. 3563.

Declaration of Independence (United States of America)

This article is about the Declaration of Independence of United States of America. For other declarations of independence, see the Wikipedia article “Declaration of independence”.

Believe me, dear Sir: there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose; and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America.
— Thomas Jefferson, November 29, 1775

Image of a stone engraving of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.

Image of a stone engraving of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.

The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies — already at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain since the Revolutionary War started in April 1775 — regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule. Instead they formed a new nation — the United States of America.

The thirteen colonies were the Delaware Colony, the Province of Pennsylvania (also known as the Pennsylvania Colony), the Province of New Jersey, the Province of Georgia (also known as the Georgia Colony), the Connecticut Colony (also known as the Colony of Connecticut), the Province of Massachusetts Bay, the Province of Maryland, the Province of South Carolina (also known as the South Carolina Colony), the Province of New Hampshire, the Colony of Virginia (also known as the Virginia Colony, the Province of Virginia, the Dominion and Colony of Virginia, and the Most Ancient Colloney and Dominion of Virginia), the Province of New York, the Province of North Carolina (also known as the North Carolina Colony, and the Royal Colony of North Carolina), and the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. A committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term “Declaration of Independence” is not used in the document itself.

Writing the Declaration of Independence, 1776. Thomas Jefferson (right), Benjamin Franklin (left), and John Adams (center) meet at Jefferson's lodgings, on the corner of Seventh and High (Market) streets in Philadelphia, to review a draft of the Declaration of Independence.

Writing the Declaration of Independence, 1776. Thomas Jefferson (right), Benjamin Franklin (left), and John Adams (center) meet at Jefferson’s lodgings, on the corner of Seventh and High (Market) streets in Philadelphia, to review a draft of the Declaration of Independence.

Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The Declaration was ultimately a formal explanation of why Congress had voted to declare independence from Great Britain. The national birthday, Independence Day, is celebrated on July 4, although Adams wanted July 2.

The Declaration became official when Congress voted for it on July 4; signatures of the delegates were not needed to make it official. The handwritten copy of the Declaration that was signed by Congress is dated July 4, 1776. The signatures of fifty-six delegates are affixed, however, the exact date each person signed it has long been the subject of debate. Jefferson, Adams, and Benjamin Franklin all wrote that the Declaration had been signed by Congress on July 4. But in 1796, signer Thomas McKean disputed that the Declaration had been signed on July 4, pointing out that some signers were not then present, including several who were not even elected to Congress until after that date.

According to the 1911 record of events by the U.S. State Department, the Declaration was transposed on paper, adopted by the Continental Congress, and signed by John Hancock, President of the Congress, on July 4, 1776. On August 2, 1776, a parchment paper copy of the Declaration was signed by 56 persons. Many of these signers were not present when the original Declaration was adopted on July 4. One signer, Matthew Thornton from New Hampshire, who was seated in the Continental Congress in November, asked for and received the privilege of adding his signature at that time, and signed on November 4, 1776. The signers are grouped by state, except for Thorton, whose name appears last.

After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for this printing has been lost, and may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson’s hand. Jefferson’s original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, and Jefferson’s notes of changes made by Congress, are preserved at the Library of Congress. The best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, and signed primarily on August 2.

The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing colonial grievances against King George III, and by asserting certain natural and legal rights, including a right of revolution. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric (as in the Gettysburg Address of 1863), and his policies. Since then, it has become a well-known statement on human rights, particularly its second sentence:

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

This has been called “one of the best-known sentences in the English language”, containing “the most potent and consequential words in American history”. The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive. This view was notably promoted by Abraham Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy, and argued that the Declaration is a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted.

The United States’ Declaration of Independence inspired many other similar documents in other countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, spreading to the Low Countries, and then to the Caribbean, Spanish America, the Balkans, West Africa, and Central Europe in the decades up to 1848.

Declaration of Independence commemorative postage stamp, 1869

Declaration of Independence commemorative postage stamp, 1869

The Declaration is not divided into formal sections; but it is often discussed as consisting of five parts: the Introduction, the Preamble, the Indictment of King George, the Denunciation of the British People, and the Conclusion. The Introduction asserts as a matter of Natural Law the ability of a people to assume political independence; acknowledges that the grounds for such independence must be reasonable, and therefore explicable, and ought to be explained. The Preamble outlines a general philosophy of government that justifies revolution when government harms natural rights. The Indictment of King George is a bill of particulars documenting the king’s “repeated injuries and usurpations” of the Americans’ rights and liberties. The Denunciation of the British People essentially finished the case for independence; the conditions that justified revolution have been shown. The Conclusion asserts that there exist conditions under which people must change their government, that the British have produced such conditions, and by necessity the colonies must throw off political ties with the British Crown and become independent states. The conclusion contains, at its core, the Lee Resolution that had been passed on July 2.

Below you can find the text of the Declaration of Independence, a photograph of the actual Declaration of Independence, and a stone engraving of the Declaration of Independence.

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.—That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.—Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

[Column 1]
Button Gwinnett
Lyman Hall
George Walton
[Column 2]
William Hooper
Joseph Hewes
John Penn
Edward Rutledge
Thomas Heyward, Jr.
Thomas Lynch, Jr.
Arthur Middleton
[Column 3]
John Hancock
Samuel Chase
William Paca
Thomas Stone
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
George Wythe
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Carter Braxton
[Column 4]
Robert Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Franklin
John Morton
George Clymer
James Smith
George Taylor
James Wilson
George Ross
Caesar Rodney
George Read
Thomas McKean
[Column 5]
William Floyd
Philip Livingston
Francis Lewis
Lewis Morris
Richard Stockton
John Witherspoon
Francis Hopkinson
John Hart
Abraham Clark
[Column 6]
Josiah Bartlett
William Whipple
Samuel Adams
John Adams
Robert Treat Paine
Elbridge Gerry
Stephen Hopkins
William Ellery
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
William Williams
Oliver Wolcott
Matthew Thornton

Image of the actual Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.

Image of the actual Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.

Image of a stone engraving of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.

Image of a stone engraving of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.

Armistice Day, Veterans Day, and Victims of Statism Day

By Perry Willis and Jim Babka, Zero Aggression Project

Veterans Day used to be called Armistice Day. Armistice Day remembered the moment when World War One ended, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918. Armistice Day was a valuable holiday. It constantly reminded people of the biggest mistake that politicians ever made—a world war fought over nothing. Alas…

The political class could not abide such a reminder of their folly, and so Armistice Day was eventually changed to something the politicians could exploit—Veterans Day. Whereas Armistice Day highlighted the dangers of militarism, Veterans Day has come to celebrate militarism. Yes, Veterans Day also includes a solemn remembrance of all the young lives lost in past wars, but…

There is never any mention made of the role politicians played in squandering those lives. Instead, a Big Lie is propagated. We’re told that soldiers died to defend freedom or to protect our way of life. Nothing could be further from the truth. We provide a link below to demonstrate that claim. It will take you to a summary history of U.S. wars. As you read that history, please consider the following proposals…

  • We can best serve the memory of fallen soldiers by being honest, and by doing our utmost to see that no more lives are squandered in senseless fraudulent wars.
  • We should stop letting politicians manipulate us with propagandistic holidays based on lies.
  • We should let the politicians celebrate Veterans Day by themselves, without our participation. Instead…
  • We should remember Armistice Day, or better yet, give it a new name—Victims of Statism Day.

That would be an even better name, because…

  • The State murdered hundreds of millions of people during the 20th Century.
  • Many of those victims were actually murdered by soldiers, including U.S. soldiers, or lost their lives due to the unintended consequences of U.S. foreign policy.
  • Civilian deaths have far exceeded military deaths, but there is no holiday to memorialize them.

Such a holiday would expose the myths that sustain both statism and militarism. Learn the real history by reading “Has U.S. Military Power Been a Force for Good or Evil?” We can think of few better actions to take on Armistice Day. But one of those actions might be to share this message with someone who will find it interesting.

Reproduced with permission. The original post can be found here:

Willis, Perry and Jim Babka. “Should We Stop Calling It Veterans Day?”. Zero Aggression Project. Undated. Accessed November 11, 2015.

Further Reading

Rummel, _____. “Democide: Murder by Government”. University of Hawaii Political Science Department. Undated. Accessed November 12, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. “Armistice Day”. Wikipedia. November 12, 2016. Accessed November 12, 2016.

Willis, Perry and Jim Babka. “Has U.S. Military Power Been a Force for Good or Evil?”. Zero Aggression Project. Undated. Accessed November 12, 2016.

Willis, Perry and Jim Babka. “What Do Libertarians Mean by the Terms Statist and Statism?”. Zero Aggression Project. Undated. Accessed November 12, 2016.

Willis, Perry and Jim Babka. “What is The State?”. Zero Aggression Project. Undated. Accessed November 12, 2016.